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with his subject, and who possesses literary abilities the shape of a critical examination of the “Speaker's adequate to the task. The author is a Wesleyan Commentary.”. We observe that Mr. T. L. Strange, minister, who having had the opportunity of con- formerly a judge at Madras, has also published a sulting materials hitherto inaccessible, has used them review of the same work. with skill and discretion. In this connection we It is possible the Bishop may be lost sight of, by may notice a little work which has reached a fourth edi- reason of the Darwinian controversy, which is still tion, entitled, "John Wesley in Company with High raging fiercely. A second edition of Mr. Mivart's Churchmen." Its object is to show that Mr. Wesley “Genesis of Species” has made its appearance; and held the highest views regarding the sacraments, in addition, a little brochure, entitled “Homo vs. prayers for the dead, apostolic succession, &c. This Darwin,” has been published. A favourable critic is done by reprinting passages from his works. A claims that it completely demolishes Mr. Darwin ; Wesleyan journal in England appears to admit the as it is now being reprinted by arrangement in Philacorrectness of this writer's inferences, but refuses to delphia, our readers will soon have the opportunity acknowledge Wesley as a pope.

“If Methodists," of judging it for themselves. On the other hand, says the Watchman, “believed in the personal in- Prof. Huxley, with characteristic impetuosity, has fallibility of John Wesley, the argument of this book assailed Mr. Darwin's critics in the Contemporary would be conclusive.” Two Presbyterian biogra- Review. In physical science the learned Professor phies have appeared during the month, both of con- is unassailable, and it is to be regretted, therefore, siderable interest. The one records the “Life and that he should expose his weak side in discussions on Ministry of the Rev. Dr. Chas. Mackintosh, of Tain theology, psychology, or ethics. A man is seldom and Dunoon," and is especially valuable for a preli- successful as a disputant in any department of study minary sketch of the evangelization of the Northern investigated only for destructive purposes. To Prof. Highlands. The other is the “Life of the Rev. Dr. Huxley, perhaps, more than to any other living phyCooke," a name familiar in the annals of the Irish sicist, we may apply Mr. Mill's words—“PhysioloPresbyterian Church. There has been a tendency of gists have had, in full measure, the failing common late years-stimulated by the recent movement in to specialists of all classes ; they have been bent upon Germany—to examine critically the doctrines and finding the entire theory of the phenomena they inpolity of the early Church of the works on this vestigate within their own speciality, and have often subject, two recently published are worthy of note- turned a deaf ear to any explanation of them drawn Dr. Killen's “Old Catholic Church, down to the from other sources. establishment of the temporal power of the Pope ;' "The Desert of the Exodus, or Journeys on foot in and the "History of the Christian Councils to the close the Wilderness of the Forty Years Wanderings,” by of the Council of Nicäa," from the originaldocuments, the Rev. E. H. Palmer, is the fruit of Ordnance Surby Dr. Hefele, Bishop of Rottenburg. Dr. Dorner's vey and the Palestine Exploration Fund. "Jerusalem, “History of Protestant Theology,” is a valuable con- the city of Herod and Saladin, an interesting work tribution to church history. It is not a chronicle of on a cognate subject, is also from the pen of Mr. events; but a critical examination of the literature of Palmer, assisted by Mr. Besant. “ Rome and the Protestantism, with a view of proving that, with Campagna,” by Mr. Burn, Tutor of Trinity College, many external differences, it possesses a substantial Cambridge, gives the most complete and satisfactory anity. The writer is evidently familiar with the description of the antiquities of Rome yet given to philosophy and theology, not only of Germany, but the world. Like the two works just mentioned, it also of England and Scotland, and has carefully is splendidly illustrated, and contains, in addition, investigated their latest phases in our most recent liter- twenty-five maps and plans. “Japan,” is the title of ature. Mr. Hunt's "History of Religious Thought the first issue of Messrs. Scribner & Co.'s "Illustrated in England, down to the close of the Eighteenth cen- Library of Travel, edited by Bayard Taylor.” It is tary," in many respects resembles Dr. Dorner's. It an interesting work, presented in an attractive form, is liberal and judicial in tone, and affords evidence of with upwards of thirty full-page engravings. Of extensive learning and research. The first volume, popular works on science we may cite Tyndall's which has just appeared, concludes with Hobbes and * Fragments of Science for Unscientific People,' Baxter. Mr. Hunt does not affect to write without which has passed through several editions ; the bias, but he claims that he has avoided inferences, “Manchester Science Lectures for the People ; wishing rather to state facts honestly; believing that, Proctor's “Light Science for Leisure Hours ;' and in every case, the inferences he would wish to draw Prof. Helmboltz' “ Popular Lectures for the Peowill be made inevitably by all impartial minds. ple.” “The Earth," by Elisée Reclus (reprinted by "Sects and Heresies,” by the Rev. Mr. Blunt, editor of the Harpers), is an illustrated work on physical the “* Annotated Book of Common Prayer,” promises science written in an extremely attractive style. to be a useful book of reference. Dr. Döllin- A competent English critic declares that, if he were ger's “ Fables respecting the Popes of the Middle condemned to a sick-room for six months with the Ages," is a réchauffé of a previous work; nevertheless, choice of half-a-dozen books, he would be well conit will attract general attention at this present juncture. tent with this as one of them. The text-books of

The Boston Lectures for 187!” somewhat resemble “Zoology” and “Geology,” by Prof. Nicholson, of the series issued by the Christian Evidences Society University College, Toronto, have been handsomely in their aim and method. The “Bampton Lectures.” reproduced by Messrs. Appleton. They are to be (1871), by the Rev. G. H. Curteis, have for their followed, we understand, by a third, on the subject subject, Dissent in its relation to the Church of Eng- of “ Biology.' In mental science, the first place land. Bishop Colenso, it would seem, has not suc- should unquestionably be conceded to the works of cumbed beneath the blows of his legion of opponents. Bishop Berkeley, edited by Prof. Fraser, of EdinHe has again appeared in the field with an additional burgh University, and printed at the Clarendon part (vi) of his celebrated work. Not content with Press, Oxford. In the last number of the Fortnightly this, however, he has unmasked a new battery, in Review, Mr. John Stuart Mill contributes an appre. ciative article on Berkeley's philosophy. As an in- “The War for the Rhine Frontier," by Colonel troduction to the study of his works, Mr. Mill's Rustow, formerly of the Prussian army, but now a paper will be found exceedingly useful. Speaking resident of Switzerland. Rustow's first volume conof the Bishop's merit as an original thinker, he claims, cludes with the last effort of Marshal Bazaine to " that of all who have employed their minds to break through the beleaguering Germans at Vionmetaphysical inquiry, he is the one of greatest ville, and his final retreat within the works at Meiz. philosophical genius." “leberweg's History of Philosophy" (vol. i.) is the first issue of Scribner's

In Biography there is as usual an abundant supply “ Theological and Philosophical Library.' It is

of greater or less merit. Four able articles pubtranslated by Prof. Morris, of Michigan (niversity,

lished in the “Catholic Monthly,” by J. F. Meline, and edited by President Porter of Yale College and

form the basis of an interesting book on a subject the Rev. Dr. Schaff. It is a work of great learning,

which would seem to be inexhaustible. " Mary, and, like all the valuable philosophical works we owe

Queen of Scots, and her latest Historians," is the

title of the work. Its tone will be understood from to Germany, gives abundant proof of great critical power and indefatigable research. This volume

the following remarks of Mr. Wm. Cullen Bryant's reaches to the close of the fifteenth century. Prof.

paper in the N. Y. Evening Post :-“A strong Blackie, of Edinburgh, recently delivered four lec

case is made out, against Mr. Froude, of the pervertures on * Ethics,” at the Royal Institution. These

tion and even falsification of documents;" and the have been published in a collected form, as “The

reader “cannot follow the arguments of Mr. Meline, Four Phases of Morals "--"Socrates,” “ Aristotle,"

without the conviction that truth has rarely been “Christianity,” and “Utilitarianism.” The Pro

more recklessly di: garded than in the brilliant fessor is an intuitionist, and, therefore, falls foul of chapters of Mr. Froude's history, which refer to John Locke, as a matter of course. His book will

Mary's reign and execution." "The Life of Sir be read with interest ; although it sometimes lacks

Henry Lawrence," one of the ablest and most sagadignity of tone and accuracy of thought, or, at any

cious of our Indian viceroys, has been written by the rate, of expression.

late Sir Herbert Edwards and Mr. Herman Merivale.

"The Life of Charles Dickens," vol. I. (1812-42) is the Of recent contributions to the department of History, Mr. E. A. Freeman's “Historical Essays” and

work of Mr. John Forster, the biographer of "Goldhis “Norman Conquest,” are especially to be

smith,"and the “Statesman of the Commonwealth." noticed. In the latter work, now in course of pub

The task could not have been committed into more lication, we have, as nearly as possible, a model of competent hands. Mr. Landseer's “Life of William

Bewick," the artist, --who is not to be confounded the spirit in which history ought to be written. The author is sound in point of learning, reliable

with Thomas Bewick, the celebrated engraver on and discriminating in judgment, and a thorough gossip concerning the authors and artists with whom

wood-is chiefly valuable for the anecdotes and enthusiast in his department. Moreover, his style is natural and vigorous; hence he has succeeded in

Bewick came in contact. The same may be said of bringing out the figures of “Harold” and “Godwin”

the Rev. W. Harness's “Literary Life," and to a in relief before his readers with a distinctness which

less extent, of Mr. Percy Fitzgerald's “Lives of the

Kembles." leaves nothing to be desired. “Edward I.,” by the

The subjects of the latter are, of course, author of the Greatest of the Plantagenets,” should

interesting in themselves, apart from the world in be mentioned. It is founded upon the former work

which they moved. “A Shadow of Dante : being of the same author, and was doubtless written to

an Essay towards the Study of Himself, his World, fortify his position against the hostile attacks of the

and his Pilgrimage,” is an able and interesting introcritics. “The Councils and Ecclesiastical Docu

duction to the works of the great Florentine. Miss ments relating to Great Britain and Ireland," edited

Rossetti, its author, belongs to a family distinguished by Messrs. Haddan and Stubbs; and “ The Charters

both in art and literature. The subject of Dante and other illustrations of English Constitutional they have made peculiarly their own, and the pre

sent volume is an additional evidence of their enHistory, down to the reign of Edward I.," edited by Prof. Stubbs, are extremely valuable collections of readers to Mr. Arthur Helps?“ Life of Cortez,” Mr. J.

thusiastic devotion to it. We can only refer our historic materials, arranged with a running commentary, showing their value and bearing upon the Morley's “Voltaire," and Mrs. Oliphant's "Life of events to which they refer. Of the recent war in

Montalembert.” It may also be worthy of note that Europe, two important narratives are in course of Napoleonic régime, are at length to be given to the

the “ Memoirs of Talleyrand,” suppressed during the publication—"The Franco-Prussian War," by Cap

world, tain Hosier, of which Division four is announced ; and

NOTE:-We have been compelled, from lack of space, to present the Literary Notes in an incomplete and unfinished state. For the same reason, our Record of Current Events and the Science and Art Summary, are entirely omitted, and several Book Reviews of interest reserved for the present. These deficiencies we hope to remedy in our next number.

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"HE census of 1861 gave to Upper and The previous census, both of 1851 and 1861,

Nova Scotia, about three million souls, and the difference thus be easily accounted for. if these Provinces had continued to increase Still, the system of enumeration adopted in until 1871, as fast as they were said to have 1871 is more likely to have brought about done for the ten preceding years, they would an under than an over statement of numnow have numbered four millions and a bers, and critical examination should, in quarter, instead of under three millions and the first place, be pointed in this direction. a half.* The difference between the antici- The census of 1861 was taken in one day; pated figures and the actual statement is grave and the de facto population, that is, the popand the public are as steadily denying the ulation actually there, was assigned to each accuracy of the recent census, as the officials house, village, county, city. The census of are upholding it. It does not follow from 1871 was intended to assign to each Prothe fact that the general expectation has been vince its de jure population, or the populadisappointed, that the officials are mistaken. tion that should of right have been there,

The last two census compilations shew the following results :

1861.

1871.

Increase. In. pr. cent.

Ontario
Quebec
New Brunswick.
Nova Scotia

1,396,091
1,111,566
252,047
330,857

1,620,842
1,190, 505

285,777
387,800

224:751
78,939
33,730
56,943

16.10

7.11 13.38 17.21

3,090,561 3,484,924

394, 363

12.76 Estered according to Act the of Parliament of Canada in the year 1872, by Adam, Stevenson & Co., in the Office of the

Minister of Agriculture.

and the necessity for taking it in one day no to prove or disprove them could have been longer existed, though all enquiries had re- at once taken. But now,a year has well-nigh ference to the same hour. The de facto lapsed, and the value of the comparison given principle gives to each locality the transient by partial checks is lessened. Most of the residents who may be in it on the census checks, however, which have been applied day. The de jure principle gives to each have shewn the census figures to be an under the persons who make it their permanent statement, as indeed from the nature of the domicile, contribute to its taxation, pay de jure principle applied by untrained men, customs and excise duties in it, take back they are pretty sure to be. To what extent, it the fruits of their wanderings to it, vote in it. is hard to say. As the system is foreign to The de facto principle obtains in the census the genius of the people of Ontario, while it systems of northern Europe; the de jure is cognate to that of the people of Quebec, principle among the Latin peoples of the as moreover the care with which Ontario Mediterranean basin. Where the Teuton, enumerators do their work is always less with his Common Law ideas rules, and what than that bestowed by those of the sister ever is most practical is best, the census de Province, it is probable that Ontario suffers facto is in favour. Where the descendants of most : possibly to the extent of 7 or 8 per the Roman, and inheritors of the Roman cent. Quebec, however, must also suffer. Law are dominant, and whatever is logical But it seems scarcely possible that any greater and theoretically right is sought to be car- proportion than six or seven per cent of the ried out, the census de jure is thought pre- grand total can have been left uncounted, and ferable. In Canada, the Minister who is it is certainly untrue that designed injustice responsible for the recent census is a law- has been done to any Province, the moral yer of the Province of Quebec, learned in character of the officials concerned is too the Roman jurisprudence, which there mys- high ; so that, if there has been any sectional tifies the unwary litigant. The Deputy- inequality in the application of the de jure Head of his Department, who aided him, is principle, it follows from casual circumstana French Canadian, pur sang. It is not un- ces, rather than from intention. We will inlikely that the disappointment felt in On- stance one: Nova Scotia has had a registratario and New Brunswick at the results ar- tion system in operation for some years, more rived at, may lead to a greater dislike to the or less efficiently, and the gentleman who has system than it deserves. But there is no had charge of it has been attached to the cenreason why the enumeration should not be sus staff. Hence, that Province has in all liketaken both of the de facto and the de jure lihood the most complete enumeration, and populations, at the same time, and the one consequently gains. The other Provinces would be a useful check upon the other. have not had this great advantage. It is, how

One of the evils of the length of time ever, the smallness of the total rather than which is now allowed to elapse between the the relative proportion of the parts which is census-taking and the publication of results, disappointing to the true patriot, and if five is the difficulty of testing their accuracy per cent of the population of Quebec has when impugned. Some of the most active been omitted, and eight of that of New of our cities, towns and villages, surprised at Brunswick and Ontario, the additional three the smallness of the figures given them, are hundred thousand, which it is thought a correpudiating them with indignation. If they rect enumeration would allot to us, would had been announced a month after the cen- make this total more respectable. sus, as they might have been, at least approxi- Correct or incorrect, however, the census mately, by a simple change of method, steps figures give some useful indications of social

movements to which we should be awake. The next thing to be remarked is that First, we may observe that the population is the old settled counties are the most stafast crowding into cities and towns, and, while tionary. This was to be expected, but if the the establishment of railways is one great census figures in 1861 and 1871 are both corcause of this, it is also the mark of a transi- rect, many of them are actually retrograding. tion period, during which manufacturing in- We may with instructive results subdivide dustries are becoming of importance. The Ontario into the following heads : Front, or cities of Ontario have increased from 103, old settled counties on the rivers and lower 884 to 132,586.* Those of Quebec from lakes ; Central counties, or those early set151,185 to 179,0847. Those of the Lower tled, though not on the great water-ways; Provinces from 57,995 to 77,0961. The and New counties, which group themselves towns show even a more remarkable in- into two parts, the counties on the upper crease—Brockville, in Ontario, and Levis, lakes, and the back counties, or those in in Quebec, have risen to the rank of rear of the old settled districts, almost all cities (placing at 10,000 the population northward from them. Following out this which should confer this rank)—while Brant- view, we have :ford, St. Catharines, Belleville, and several

1. Front counties :others are fast following suit. The city and

1861. 1871. town population may be set down at

Glengarry...

21,187

20,524 half a million, to which it has increased Stormont.

18,129 18,987 from four hundred thousand in 1861, an

Dundas..

18,777

18,777 increase of 25 per cent.

The rest of
Leeds and Grenville. .... 59,941

57,918

Frontenac, Lennox, and the population has only increased 11 per

Addington...

55,349 cent. In this connection we should con

Hastings...

44,970 48,364 sider that if the de jure system works injust- Prince Edward.

20,869 20,336 ice anywhere it is in the towns and cities. Northumberland

40,592 39,085 The travellers staying at hotels, the young

Durham..

39,115 lads at schools and boarding houses, the

Ontario
York

59,674 servants in families—all these are referred

Peel and Cardwell.. 33,608

32,869 to their homes, which are chiefly in the coun- Halton ....

22,794

22,606 try, while foreigners passing through the Wentworth..

31,832 30,883 Dominion who are not enumerated at all,

Haldimand, Welland,

Monck and Lincoln... 76,321 are almost altogether in cities and towns.

Norfolk

30,763 1861 1871 Elgin

32,050 'Toronto..

56,092 Hamilton 19,096 26,716

645,402

652, 108 Ottawa..

14,669

21,545 London

2. Central or interior counties, midway 11,555 Kingston.

54,018

41,604

37,381 45,890 59,882

80, 159

28,590

33,666

44,821

13,743 12,407 between old and new ones :--
1861
1871

1861.

1871. Montreal 90,323 107,225 Oxford.

46,226

48,237 Quebec. 51,109 59,699 Perth ..

38,083 46,522 Three Rivers

6,058
Waterloo.

38,750 40,251 St. Hyacinthe. 3,695 3,746 Wellington

49,200

63,290 1861. 1871. Brant....

30,338

32,259 St. Johns, N.B. (and

Lanark.

31,639 33,020 Portland)..

27,317
41,508
Prescott.

15,499

17,647 Halifax.

25,026

29,582 Fredericton 5,652 6,006

249,735 281,226

15,826

8,414

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