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Beers, W. Geo., Esq., Montreal....
Bourinot, J. G., Esq., Ottawa....
Cooper, C. W., Esq., Toronto.
Corson, Prof. H., Ithaca, N. Y....
Crosby, F. K., Esq., St. John, N. B........
Dawson, J. W., Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., Montreal
Dixon, Fred. A., Esq., Toronto.
Gane, W. H., Esq., Ingersoll......
Giles

, H. M., Esq., St. Catharines..
Holmes, Gervas, Esq., Cobourg......
Leprohon, Mrs., Montreal......
Lespérance, Jno., Esq., Montreal..
Lindsey, Charles, Esq., Toronto....
Maitland, Mrs. M. A., St. Catharines.
McLachlan, Alexander, Esq., Erin ........
McMurrich, W. B., Esq., M.A., Toronto...
Mills

, David, Esq., M.P., Bothwell..
Muchall

, Mrs. M. E., Peterborough..
Mulvany, the Rev. C. P., Huntley...
Murray, Miss Louisa, Wolfe Island.......
Noel, Mrs. J. V., Kingston......
Raine, Henry, Esq., Barrie..
Reade, John, Esq., Montreal...
Sangster, Chas., Esq., Ottawa....
Smith, Goldwin, Esq., M.A., Toronto..
Taylor, Fennings, Esq., Ottawa....
Thomson, E. W., Esq., Almonte.....
White, Edw. J., Esq., Bowmanville..

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ume will be taken, we trust, as a proof the political parties. It shows that our prothat the Canadian Monthly is not destined to fession of neutrality is felt to be sincere, and share the fate of those short-lived predeces that the Magazine is regarded as a suitable sors, the recollection of whose brief exist- place for the impartial discussion of quesence has been one of the chief obstacles to tions relating to the broad interests of our the progress of the present enterprise. common country. To keep it so will be our

Without exaggerating our success, we may earnest endeavour. We can truly say that say that the position already attained by the those who guide it are entirely free from Magazine, is such as fully to warrant our party connections and party bias, and that perseverance in the undertaking. The ex- whether their cause be right or wrong, it can pense is heavy, but the circulation is large, be dictated by no motive but regard for the and its tendency has been steadily upwards. common good. The national need of an orLet Canadians be a little kind and helpful gan devoted not to a party but to Canada is to the effort to establish a worthy organ of apparent already, and is likely to become Canadian intellect, and we shall look for- more apparent still. ward with confidence to the result.

We continue to welcome contributions, Contributions which were obtained with especially such as are either amusing or difficulty at first, and while the character of practically interesting. Essays of a more the Magazine was unknown, now flow freely general kind are not unacceptable, but we in. Their number obliges us to decline can afford them only a limited space. We many, to the authors of which our best prefer short tales to serials, but we welcome thanks are not the less due for their prof- every description of fiction, from the domesfered aid.

tic novel to the fairy tale. Humour in any We note with pleasure the appearance form is as acceptable as it is rare. Fatered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada in the year 1972, by Adam, Stevenson & Co., in the Office of the

Minister of Agriculture,

--

THE IMMIGRANT IN CANADA.*

BY THOMAS. WHITE, JR.

TH]
CHERE is an unofficial agency constantly while it is not so easy to procure the publi-

at work in promoting or retarding im cation of letters written in a spirit of congratmagration, which it would be very unwise to ulation at the fact of the writer having emioverlook in any general scheme for the pro- grated, of contentment with the present, and motion of this great national interest, and of hope for the future. The disconsolate which should prompt us to remember that letters are almost always written within a few the work is scarcely half done, when we days or at most a few weeks of the arrival have provided the most ample and complete of the emigrant. The tedium of the ocean system of information bureaux in the coun- voyage; the intense heart-longing for the old tries whence immigrants may be expected. faces, lost apparently for ever, and for the This unofficial agency is in the hands of old haunts now memories of the past ; the immigrants themselves, and is not the less landing at the miserable quay at Point Levi, effective because it works silently and se- as forbidding a spot as ever a poor stranger cretly. The letter from the friend in Ame- faced in a strange land; the tedious and rica is conned not only in the old home- novel ride by rail, in cars not always as comstead, by the English fireside, but it passes fortable as they should be, to the western from hand to hand until all the village has destination; the strangeness and newness of read it, and it becomes the leading subject everything; the delay in obtaining employof conversation at the social gatherings for ment, and the fact that it was perhaps not weeks after its arrival. Against its state that which had been expected; the first full ments those of official pamphlets or official realization of the truth that the new world lecturers can make small headway; and un- like the old is, after all, but a work-a-day. fortunately the natural tendency to exagge world, subject, like other places, to the curseration on the part of such agents, makes it all —was it not rather a blessing?—which fell the more difficult on their part to combat the upon our first parents, " in the sweat of thy assertions of actual experience on the part of face shalt thou eat bread;" and the revul. the immigrant himself. During the last sion of feeling when the castles in the air three years the British weekly press has con- which he had been building vanished into tained many letters from emigrant settlers in dim distance—all these prompted him to Canada. They have influenced to a con- write home to warn his friends against facsiderable extent the direction of emigration; ing the disappointments which had come and unfortunately, as it is more easy to ap- upon him. It is these letters, written under peal to the fears than to the hopes of people, such impulses, that are the most difficult the letters which breathed a spirit of disap- stumbling-blocks in the way of a conscienpointment were invariably the most influen- tious agent. And one of the problems to be tial. I have known such letters, or extracts solved is, how they can be rendered less frefrom them, cut out by agents interested in quent, and less justifiable. emigration to the United States, and sent to The solution of this problem must be found the provincial press throughout the kingdom. on this, not on the other side of the AtlanThey are always, or almost always, inserted; tic. The very complaints contained in those

See article on “ Immigration" in the No. for March, page 193, vol. 1.

letters, silent emissaries of mischiet to the and London, whence emigrants could be cause of immigration, suggests the method distributed to the surrounding districts, of that solution. It consists in a kindly should be supplied with agents; the same provision for the reception of the emigrant policy being pursued in each of the other on his arrival in the country, and such a Provinces. These local agents should be system of labour registration as would en charged with the duty of obtaining full inable the agents of the Government not to formation as to the labour wants of their lose sight of him until he was in actual em respective districts, thus enabling them to ployment of some kind. Since the former do the double good of securing employment article was written, the Government of On- for the immigrant and labour for the emtario have asked the Legislature for a larger ployer. They should be in constant comappropriation for the promotion of immigra- munication with the Dominion agencies at tion than has ever been voted before by any the larger centres, so that on the arrival Legislature in Canada ; and have foreshad- of immigrants these latter would know owed the policy which they propose to where to send them; and in this way they adopt in the expenditure of this liberal ap- would be made to feel that they were at least propriation. It would be unfair to criticise welcome, and that the government and peothis policy for two reasons : first because it ple were doing their best to tide over for is put forward avowedly as an experiment, them the first days of terrible lonesomeness and as such it should be accepted ; and and helplessness. second because the short time which the In order that this plan may be carried administration has been in office, and the out successfully, that the unofficial agent circumstances under which they accepted it, may be prompted to work for, instead of during the session, justified their asking to be against, emigration to the Dominion, it is entrusted with the expenditure of this money essential that there should, as far as possias the experience and information of the ble, be public works in progress at all times. season may seem to them best. It is to be It is true that the ordinary system of labour feared, however, that they have not suffi- registration will always do much towards ciently considered the influence of this un- securing employment to the newly arrived official agency in the policy which they have emigrant, and under all circumstances it is foreshadowed. A liberal expenditure upon of the very first importance that it should agencies' at leading centres within the Pro- be kept up as an active and constant agency. vince, and upon a system of internal transit Its importance is admirably illustrated in a for emigrants, would secure to the cause of pamphlet just issued by Mr. F. P. Mackelemigration to Ontario the active co-opera- can, of Montreal. He points out, what is tion of the emigrants settling in it. That at once a patent and a painful fact to all co-operation is worth more, far more, than who feel an interest in the prosperity of Canany system of agency in Great Britain, in ada, that while fields have remained unculview of the fact that already the agencies tivated and workshops partially idle for want abroad have been amply, and on the whole of labour, emigrants who could have tilled ably, filled by the Dominion Government. the fields and laboured in the workshops, It is worth more than any result that will have passed through the country into a forflow from a system of subsidized immigra- eign land under the impression that there tion; and it can be secured at very much was no employment for them here,

* The Such centres of population as chief subject of anxiety that presses upon Brockville, Belleville, Peterborough, Guelph the new comers,” the writer of this pam

less cost.

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