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worst, shown a certain lack of delicacy, such devoid of any kind of ability, however as might be expected in a man of coarse rough, however redolent of the camp; they moral fibre, capable of carrying on war by have been tissues of absolute platitudes. The the system of "attrition, and of allowing stupid insult which he levelled against Canada his soldiers to rot by thousands in Southern was probably dictated by intriguers at his prison camps, rather than consent to an ex- elbow ; but the economical lucubrations in change of prisoners by which his enemy which he serenely airs his ignorance of the would have received reinforcement. Nor is first rudiments of the subject, must be rethere any evidence for the assertion that his garded as entirely his own. With the reduépersonal probity, which when he was at the tion of the debt he has had as much to do head of the army was unimpeached, has as with the Precession of the Equinoxes: it failed since he has been at the head of the went on just as well under his predecessor State, or that any of the plunder collected Johnson, “the greatest criminal of the age." by his partisans has found its way into the His annexationist propensities, which, if any pockets of their chief. But partly from the weight was to be attached to the boastings desire of retaining his office, or rather the of his confidential friends, were at first very White House, and preserving the patronage extensive in their range, have shrunk to the to his friends and relations; partly, and acquisition of St. Domingo, with regard to perhaps principally, from sheer helplessness which he has displayed some of his oid and inability to control the evil men about military obstinacy, but has been baffled 1. him, he has acquiesced in a vast system of the good sense of the nation, which resisted jobbery and corruption. Whatever is lowest, the incorporation into a body politic, already vilest, most destructive of public morality in too heterogeneous, of a horde of black barparty government, and in the management of barians, managed, as they inevitably would be. party, has flourished and abounded under by carpet-baggers. In his eagerness to com. the Presidency of General Grant. In the pass the annexation, he committed what North the state of things has been bad was probably a breach of the constitution, enough; but in the South corruption, sup- though without any intention of usurpation. ported by party bayonets, has ridden ram The strongest point in General Grant's repant, and there has been an orgy of misrule cord is the Treaty of Washington, which, from Richmond to New Orleans. In the however, was saved not by him and his adSouth, General Grant has also lent himself to visers, but in spite of them. His manners sabre-sway, the love of which, whatever his are simple, modest, and suitable to the chief

, violent opponents may say, is not in his of a Republic; but his lack of statesmanship character, and to which he has shown no ten is redeemed by no personal dignity, his love dency elsewhere. The movement in favour of of horses is rather too prominent, and civil service reform, earnestly supported by the notorious incidents of his early life have all true friends of the country, has been left clinging to him, perhaps unjustly, the dallied with, baffled, and put off to a more odour of habits which the moral sentiment convenient season. As to statesmanship, if of the people will not tolerate in the little was expected of General Grant, he has head of the nation. As the lesser of shown less than that little. In politics he is two evils he will receive the votes of a large simply a man out of his sphere, and without number of worthy citizens: but otherwise any of the power and versatility which some. it may be doubted whether there is a single times enable men of genius promptly to adapt honest, sensible and independent man, who themselves to spheres different from their sincerely desires the re-election of President

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His defeat would have been certain had Greeley is connected with bad men ; and his opponent been Mr. Adams. But his the same bad men engineered” his nomiopponent, thanks to the diabolical skill of nation at Cincinnati. Viewing his past course the wirepullers, is not Mr. Adams, but in the light of his present candidature, Horace Greeley, a man whose nomination it is hard to believe that his coquettings with for the Presidency would have been regard the South, and his signing of Jeff Davis' ed as an impossibility till it took place, and bail bond, were the simple results of his when it took place was at first hardly receiv- goodness of heart without any ulterior ob-, ed as serious. Horace Greeley is the most ject; or that his flirtation with Fenianism grotesque and obtrusive specimen of “the arose from a disinterested sympathy with self-made man.” He appeals to the people the Irish cause. His ardent advocacy of the in an old white coat, an old white bat, his single term principle is suggestive of a simipants tucked into his boots, and his neck-lar remark. In fact the finding after many cloch tied under his ear, with manners to days of the bread which he thus cast upon the correspond. His origin is as availably waters is the most hopeful sign of his political popular as that of Abraham Lincoln. His sagacity. The confidence of his party he has savage protectionism is supposed to have never been able to obtain : often they have arisen partly from a notion that, in his boy been on the brink of nominating him for hood, the privations of his humble home office, but at the last moment they have alwere aggravated by free trade legislation. ways shrunk from doing it. His vanity is He affects the farmer and the rural sage ; extreme and easily played upon by designing and the vast circulation of his journal in the men. He would no doubt go into office a country districts is due to his great com- reformer ; but the end which he had “rough mand of the sort of wisdom and moral senti- hewn” would be “shaped” by the men who ment which suit the bucolic taște. It is just have him in their hands, and whose aim is to add that when he is at his best he writes not reform. As an administrator he is probaa good, racy, English style. He enjoys bly in no way superior to Grant, or superior the reputation of being very crotchetty but to him only as eccentricity is superior to dulvery honest. That he is very crotchetty is ness: to Grant's power of blundering there certain. Every one of the long train of is a limit fixed by his want of imagination, American chimeras, political, social, econo- to Greeley's there would be none. There mical and sanitary, he has taken up in its are those indeed who think that the Presiturn; and it has been observed that he must dency would be as fatal to the rural sage of not only ride his hobby-horse but ride it Chippaqua as it was to the hard-cider-drinkalone : when any one else gets up he imme- ing hero of Tippecanoe. Greeley's one diately gets down. The question as to his really strong point is that he would be inclinhonesty is more complicated. He would ed by his humanity, as well as bound by his not steal : he is careless of money even to a present connections, to “shake hands across foolish extent. No doubt he has genuine the bloody chasm,” and put an end to the though unsteady sympathies and antipa- military and carpet-bagging tyranny at the thies, and is so far superior to the mere poli- South. Other qualifications for the great tical hack. But there is no more unscrupu- and perilous trust for which he is a candilous partizan, no more unscrupulous enemy; date, he has none. and in point of veracity his journal is by no The Greeleyite movement may be said to means above its New York peers. In slan- consist of four elements, in part connected dering England it perhaps bears away the with each other, in part merely concurrent, palm. In New York State politics Mr. and indeed as strangely brought together as

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any “fortuitous concourse of atoms” in poli. jobbery and corruption of the Grant Administical history.

tration. Foremost among these reformers, In the first place there is a schism in the foremost perhaps among American statesRepublican party such as generally occurs men, is Carl Schurz, the worthy representawhen the victors, swollen in number by all tive of the German element, in which, since the waiters on fortune, come to divide the the commercial morality of the native Amerspoils. Indignation against abuses is of ican has so deeply infected his politics, course the pretext of the schismatics, but seems to reside the best remaining hope of inadequate requital of their personal services national redemption. The reform party is the real cause.

The schism first openly went to Cincinnati probably to nominate Mr. broke out in the State of New York, where Adams, Carl Schurz himself being ineligible two sub-factions, one led by Senator Fenton, as a foreigner by birth; but the Greeley Ring Greeley's not immaculate friend, and the got the Convention into its hands. Schurz other led by Senator Conkling, struggle for was so overwhelmed by the result that he the local leadership of the party and the dis- forgot to perform the duty, which fell to him posal of its local patronage with a fury at as President of the Convention, of reporting least as intense as that with which Republi- the nomination. Could the honest minority, cans and Democrats struggle for the leader which had been thus jockeyed, have repuship and patronage of the nation. But it diated the decision and nominated Mr. has spread to all parts of the Union. In Adams, there would still have been a fair Pennsylvania, the most corrupt State after chance of success; but the vote of the CopNew York, Simon Cameron and Col. Forney, vention was regarded as binding. Carl lately twin pillars of the Grant Administra- Schurz has taken the stump for Greeley : tion, seem, with their followings, to have with an aching heart no doubt ; but he evi fallen out over a prize of which it may be dently regards Grant and his satellites with said that both are equally worthy. With this cordial detestation ; and probably deems element of the movement rather than with it best for the country to break up the pre any other, we must identify Mr. Sumner, sent system at whatever cost. On the other though his grief is not disappointed cupidity, hand the New York Nation, the editor but mortified self-esteem. If his motives of which was one of the Cincinnati Reformare less coarse than those of Fenton and ers, has reluctantly gone back to Grant Forney, his position is scarcely more respec- Thirdly, there is a reaction against ceztable than theirs; for, with the malignant tralization. An increase of the powers of philanthropy characteristic of him, he was the Central Government was inevitable durone of the main instigators of that cruel and ing the civil war; but the victorious party, tyrannical policy at the South which it is the or a large section of it, aims at perpetuating best object of the Greeleyite movement to centralization in its own interest. The aspioverthrow. That the nominee of the Balti-rations of the extreme unionists are disclosed more Convention is the real champion of in a book called “ The Nation,” which is negrophilism is a belief too extravagant to understood to have found great favour be sincerely entertained even by the distort- with Mr. Sumner and others of that ed fancy which engendered the Indirect school. The author of this book preaches Claims.

the divine right of the Nation as fanatically Secondly, there is a genuine movement as any sycophant of the Stuarts ever preachin favour of administrative reform, principaled the divine right of Kings, and in the ly among the best men of the Republican par- j name of his theory proposes, on highly transty, who were goaded to revolt by the hopeless cendental grounds, but with very practical

objects, to extinguish State rights, cancel votes of the Southern States. Their reign the authority of their guardian, the Supreme has been one of profligate corruption. The Court, and reduce everything beneath the State debts and taxes have been increased absolute sway of the Government and Legis- to an astounding extent, partly to enrich the lature of Washington. Nothing more sub- carpet-baggers and their satellites, partly to versive of true liberty, of independent self-supply the means of political corruption.* development, and with them, of genuine While bayonets have formed the chief supprogress, is to be found in the Leviathan of port of the system, a semblance of elecHobbes. If the tone of the book, instinct tive authority has been sought in the votes with unctuous malignity and hypocritical of the negroes, who are of course the merest ambition, is in any degree shared by the tools in the hands of their crafty managers. party to which the book is addressed, a re- Ignorant blacks and unworthy whites have action of sentiment may well be combined been thrust into all the offices, even those with the reaction of conviction. In combat of the judiciary. The bench of justice in ing such Unionism as this, the Democratic the Supreme Court of South Carolina was ocparty is fighting for its ancient principles cupied by a Carpet-bagger, a Negro, and a though with strange confederates at its side ; Jew. Political amnesty, though demanded by for it was originally the party of State Right, the general good sense of the people, was put on which Slavery afterwards fastened itself, off till it could be put off no longer, and and by its parasitic growth overshadowed was then conceded only in stinted measure. and almost killed the standard tree. Jeffer- The South has, in short, not been ruled in son, the founder of the Democratic party, the interest of the nation, with a view to rewas a declared enemy of Slavery, while he concilement and the restoration of prosperwas the champion of State Right as well as ity, but “run ” in the interest of a party; an adherent of the sound doctrine that, un- and in the process a greater justification has der republican institutions, the least delega- been given to the Southerners for rebellion tion of power is the best, and the greatest than ever was given to the Colonists by security for the integrity of the delegate is the George III. How far the Ku-Klux outrages immediate supervision of his constituents. in the South would have warranted excepRid of slavery, the Democratic party is doing tional measures, such as those for which its “first works,” far better works than those Whiteboyism and Fenianism have called in which it did as the subordinate ally of the Ireland, it is difficult to say ; that there has slaveowning oligarchy of the South.

been outrage,

and

grave outrage, is undeniaThe fourth element, the most important, ble ; but the number and atrocity of the and the one which appeals most to the in- cases always increased when capital was terests and sympathies of humanity at large, needed at the North for a campaign. It is is a political insurrection of the South certain, however, that Ku-Klux outrage could against the tyranny of Grant and his Carpet- in no way justify Carpet-bagging corruption baggers, as to the scandalous character of and misrule ; and equally certain that the which there appears to be no room for doubt. feud between the whites and blacks, which The Carpet-baggers, vultures who descended gave birth to Ku-Kluxism, was not likely to upon the conquered nation in the wake of be allayed by doing injustice to the whites. the victorious armies, have acted as the emis- In fact the reconciliation of the races has saries and satraps of the party installed at probably been indefinitely delayed by thus Washington, which has lent them the sup making the lower race agents in the oppresport of the Federal bayonets, while they

• The State debt of Louisiana has been increased bare secured to the party the congressional $45,000,000 in three years.

sion and humiliation of the higher. No ex- Carpet-bagging rule at the South will fall, cuse for this policy can be found in the and the Southerners would be insane if they circumstances of Secession. For the curse failed as one man to support him against of Slavery, and the other curses attendant Grant ; that is if they mean to act again with on it, including Secession and the Civil War, Northern parties, and to vote for Northern not the South alone was responsible, but candidates at all. If we feel disposed to the whole Union, which, for a political ob- sympathize with the South in its effort to reject common both to North and South, had cover political liberty, Slavery need not made Slavery a part of the Constitution. stand in our way. It is dead and buried. The special growth and predominance of Were the South to become independent and Slavery in the Southern part of the country self-governed to-morrow, slavery would never was an accident of climate, not the crime of be revived again. the Southern people. After the division of What the result will be no one can at the Union into two nations, which had been present pretend to say. As matters now so long foreseen and so repeatedly predicted, stand, Greeley must have a majority on his as a consequence of the social antagonism side. That the split in the Republican parwhich slavery produced, the Northern nation ty is large the course taken by the Spring conquered the Southern nation and forcibly field Republican and the Chicago Tribune is re-annexed it, scarcely in accordance with sufficient to prove; but we know this by the principle that government rests on the more direct observation. The accession of consent of the governed, but in strict ac- the Chicago Tribune also indicates that the cordance with the laws of war. Those laws Free Trade Reformers of the West are satisalso warranted in the case of the conquered fied with Greeley's promise of legislative South, as in the case of Alsace and Lor- neutrality on the Tariff question. The De raine, military rule, till all resistance was mocratic party has been greatly weakened completely quenched; but they did not by the effects of the civil war, which not warrant party tyranny such as the Carpet- only cut off its Southern wing, but divided baggers have carried on. General Grant's the Northern wing and weakened it by dename is the symbol of conquest and of the sertion. Still it can bring a powerful contidconqueror's sway. This is his claim to gent into the field, and the mass of the the allegiance of the party which refuses party seems to hold pretty well together in " shake hands

the bloody favour of the nominee of the Baltimore Conchasm.” His campaign portraits are vention ; though there has been some boltadorned with the titles of his victories ing, owing a good deal to the conduct of the over the South ; a proof, by the way, that New York World, the cleverest and the most in its real character the war was inter- calamitous organ ever possessed by any po national rather than civil, and that the posi- litical party, in labouring to render intoleration of the South is, in fact, that of a con- bly nauseous a nomination which it was evidquered nation ; for Cromwell, when at the ent, from the prompt adhesion of the South, head of the whole nation, did not talk to his would have to be swallowed after all. The parliaments about Naseby, and Napoleon Irish will vote for the name “Democratic," always strove to bury the memory of his as in their mother country they used to vote participation in civil war. Greeley's record

or fight for “Two year old” and in this respect is chequered ; he has had vest." Greeley will probably, through his alternating fits of humanity and party vio- journal, carry a good many of the farmers of lence. But there can be no doubt that if he the North, though some of them have never is elected by Democratic votes, military and I forgiven him for signing Jeff. Davis' bail

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