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The other concessions to the slave States were Article 4, section 2, clause 2, concerning the return of fugitive slaves, and Article 1, section 2, clause 3, giving representation in Congress to the number of inhabitants plus three-fifths of the slaves. The consideration for these concessions was the elimination of the following section: "No Navigation Act shall be passed without the assent of two-thirds of the members present in either House."

Compromise Tariff.—A Tariff Act introduced by Henry Clay in 1833. (See Tariffs of the United States.)

Concord Mob.—In August, 1835, a time when the anti-slavery leaders were decried and insulted even in New England, John Greenleaf Whittier accompanied George Thompson, an English orator, to Concord, New Hampshire, to make arrangements for an anti-slavery meeting. A mob of several hundred gathered, assailed Whittier with sticks and stones, injured him and drove him into the house of an honorable man, though not an Abolitionist. Meanwhile the house which held Thompson was also attacked. Whittier managed to join him. A cannon was actually brought to bombard the house, but finally the rioters dispersed without doing serious damage, and Whittier and Thompson escaped from the town.

Confederate States, The.—The name adopted by the States that seceded in 1861. Delegates from six of these States met at Montgomery, Alabama, February 4,

1861, and formed a provisional government under the above name. The delegates to the convention had been appointed by the different State conventions, and not elected by the people. The government thus established adopted provisionally the Constitution of the United States, making in it such changes as suited their purpose, and declared all the laws of the United States in force until repealed. The legislation of the provisional Congress (consisting of one House only) dealt with the carrying on of the war, the raising of money and the adoption of a permanent constitution. In February,

1862, this constitution having been adopted by all the States, an election was held under it, and Jefferson Davis and Alexander H. Stephens (the provisional President and Vice-President) were chosen. They were inaugurated February 22, 1862. The capital had been removed to Richmond, Virginia, and there it remained during the war. The influence of Congress on the course of events was but small, all the real power being in the hands of the President, who made his influence felt in every department. The surrender of Lee in 1865 put an end to the Civil War, and at the same time to the Confederacy. Most of the changes that were made in the Constitution were made for the purpose of securing explicit recognition of slavery and of the sovereignty of the States. A point of interest to us is a prohibition on laying any duties on imports "to promote or foster any branch of industry."

Confirmation by the Senate. (See Term and Tenure of Office.)

Congress.—All legislative powers granted by the Constitution of the United States are vested in Congress, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The powers of Congress are enumerated in Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution, and all owers not granted to Congress, or prohibited to the tates, are reserved to the States or to the people; but the power of Congress is absolute within the scope of its authority. The Senate is composed of two members from every State, regardless of size or population; the members of the House are apportioned on the basis of population. Thus, while in the House the influence of the people is felt directly, according to their numbers, the Senate provides the means of defending the smaller States from the possible encroachments of the larger; and to assure the safety of the smaller States, the Constitution, Article 5, provides that "no State without its consent shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate." Bills that have passed both Houses are sent to the President, who may either sign or veto them, or do neither, in which case the bill becomes a law after ten days unless Congress has previously adjourned. (See Veto.) The veto of the President is the only check upon the power of Congress to legislate within the scope of its authority. Legislation exceeding the constitutional power of Congress will be declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, if that body is appealed to by either party to any controversy arising in an attempt to enforce such laws. Each House is, by the Constitution, "the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members."

Congressman. (See House of Representatives; Congressman-at-Large.)

Congressman-at-Large.—The Act of February 25, 1882, provided for the reapportionment of Representatives. (See Apportionment!) In cases where the number assigned to a State was increased and the Legislature of that State did not provide for rearrangement of the districts, the additional members were to be elected on a general ticket by the whole State, the old districts each electing one member as before. Where the representation of a State was diminished and a corresponding change of district was not made, the whole number of members was to be elected on a general ticket, There is at present but one Congressman-at-large. He is from Pennsylvania.

Conkling, Roscoe, was born at Albany, New York, October 30,1829. From 1859 to 1863 and 1865 to 1867 he served in the House, and from 1867 to 1881 in the United States Senate. In 1881 he resigned. (See Stalwarts.) Subsequently he devoted himself exclusively to his profession of the law in which he held prominent rank. He died at New York, April 18, 1888.

Connecticut was one of the original States of the Union. It had two capitals, Hartford and New Haven, up to 1873, when the former was made the sole seat of government. The population in 1880 was 622,700, and in the last census (1890) 746,258. Connecticut is entitled to four members of the House of Representatives, and casts six electoral votes. It is a somewhat doubtful State in national politics. From 1860 to 1884 it was Republican, except that in 1876 Tilden had a ?mall majority, and in 1884 Cleveland a small plurality. It takes its name from its principal river, which means in the Indian tongue, "long river." Popularly it is variously known as the Freestone, Nutmeg, or wooden Nutmeg State, or the Land of Steady Habits. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Conscience Whigs.—In 1850 the Whigs in Congress had taken the position that the slavery question, which they regarded as settled by the Compromise of 1850, should not be reopened. This policy was approved by President Fillmore. Their attitude led to dissensions in the party in many of the States. In Massachu

leaders were known as Conscience Whigs; those that approved it as Cotton Whigs. The reason of the name is obvious. In New York, Fillmore's State, the supporters of his view were known as Silver Grays, a name given to them because they were mostly the older members. They were also called Snuff-takers. Those opposing it, headed by William H. Seward, were called Woolly Heads, or Seward Whigs. Conscription Bill. (See Drafts.) Conservatives.—A name assumed by certain political parties in many nations. These parties are sometimes actually, and always avowedly, opposed to changes from old and established forms and practices. In United States history these names have never been in general use, but in Van Buren's administration the name was applied to those Democrats that at the special session of Congress, of September, 1837, opposed the establishment of the sub-treasury system. In the Congress that met December, 1839, they had practically disappeared. The name was also assumed by Southern whites during the reconstruction period following the Civil War, to show their adherence to the old State governments, the abolition of which by Congress they opposed. In Virginia the name was in use until 1872. The name was also used at the North during this period. The Democrats applied it to themselves to draw moderate Republican votes.

Constitution, The, is a Covenant with Death and an Agreement with Hell.—One of the mottoes

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stand thus taken by the of the Abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator. (See Abolitionists.)

Constitutional Union Party.—This name was adopted at a convention in Baltimore, in May, 1860, of those Whigs that had not, on the dissolution of their party, joined either the Republicans or Democrats. In 1856 tney had constituted a portion of the American party. They denounced the platforms of existing

Sarties as tending "to widen political divisions," and eclared their principle to be "the Constitution of the country, the union of the States, and the enforcement of the laws." John Bell, of Tennessee, and Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, were respectively nominated for President and Vice-President. This ticket carried Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee, receiving thirtynine electoral votes. In several of the States "fusion" tickets of electors had been named, and in these the popular vote for each ticket can only be estimated. Bell's total popular vote is variously estimated from about 590,000 to 650,000, of which the former is probably more nearly correct. This party disappeared at the beginning of the Civil War.

Constitution of the Country, The, the Union of the States, and the Enforcement of the Laws. —This phrase is from the platform of the Constitutional Union Party, adopted at its convention in Baltimore, May 19, 1860.

Constitution of the United States.—The history of the formation of our Constitution is given under the heading of Convention of 1787 (which see). It was signed, as indicated below, by all the delegates to that convention except Gerry, of Massachusetts, and Mason and Randolph, of Virginia. Having been transmitted to Congress, that body, on September 28, 1787, ordered it to be submitted to conventions chosen in the separate States by the people thereof. Such conventions were chosen, and through them eleven States ratified the Constitution on the following dates: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788;

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