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Jonnecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788; Virginia, June 26, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788. As the seventh article provided that the ratification of nine States should be sufficient, it was therefore adopted. March 4, 1789, was the day set for the operations of the new government to commence. Subsequently it was ratified by the two remaining States—by North Carolina on November 21, 1789, and by Rhode Island on May 29, 1790. The text of the various amendments is given below with the body of the Constitution. The dates of the adoption of the amendments are given under the heading Amendments to the Constitution (which see).
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the wbole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed three-fifths of all other persons. (Altered by the Fourteenth Amendment, Section II.] The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative;
We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more
perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.
SECTION I. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
SECTION II. 1st clause. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.
2d Clause. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
3d Clause. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within
and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey, four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
4th clause. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
5th Clause. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
SECTION III. 1st Clause. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
2d Clause. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or ctherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
3d Clause. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
4th Clause. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.
5th clause. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-Presi. dent, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.
6th Clause. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief-Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
7th Clause. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.
1st Clause. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.
2d Clause. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in Deoember, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
SECTION V. 1st Clause. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.
2d Clause. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.
3d Clause. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
4th Clause. Neither House during the session of Congress shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
1st Clause. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they shall not be
questioned in any other place. 2d Clause. No Senator or Representative shall, dụring the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the
United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.
SECTION VII. 1st Clause. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.
2d Clause. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter their objections at large on their journal and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration twothirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and pays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House
respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed 'it, unless the Congress þy their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be
3d Clause. Every order, resolution or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
SECTION VIII. The Congress shall have power:
1st Clause. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
2d Clause. To borrow money on the credit of the United States;
3d Clause. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several Štates, and with the Indian tribes;
4th Clause. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;
5th Clause. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;
6th clause. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States; 7th Clause. To establish post-offices and post-roads; 8th Clause. To promote the progress
of science and useful
arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;
9th Clause. Io constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;
10th Clause. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;
11th Clause. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;
12th Clause. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years; 13th Clause. To provide and maintain a navy;
14th Clause. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;
15th Clause. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;
16th Clause. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
17th Clause. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; and
18th°Clause. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
SECTION IX. 1st Clause. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.
2d Clause. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
3d Clause. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.
4th Clause. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.
5th Clause. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.