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3d Clause. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

ARTICLE VIL

The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same.

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the States

Eresent the seventeenth day of September in the year of our ord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.

Go: WASHINGTON
Presidt. and Deputy from Virginia.

New Hampshire.—John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman.
Massachusetts.—Nathaniel Gorham, Ruf us King.
Connecticut.—ffm. Saml. Johnson, Roger Sherman.
New York.—Alexander Hamilton.

New Jersey.—Wil: Livingston, David Brearley, Wm. Patterson, Jona: Dayton.

Pennsylvania.—B. Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt. Morris, Geo. Clvmer, Thos. Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris.

Delaware.—Geo: Read, Gunning Bedford, Jun., John Diokinson, Richard Bassett, Jaoo. Broom.

Maryland.—James McHenry, Dan of St. Thos Jenifer, Danl. Carroll.

Virginia.—John Blair, James Madison, Jr.

North Carolina.—Wm. Blount, Riohd. Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson.

South Carolina.—J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinokney, Pierce Butler.

Qeorgta.—WiUiam Pew, Abr Baldwin.

Attest: WrLLiA.M Jackson, Secretary.

Amendments To The Constitution.

PROPOSED BY CONGRESS AND RATIFIED BT THE LEGISLATURES OP THE SEVERAL STATES.

ARTICLE I.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

ARTICLE IL

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

ARTICLE ILL

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor m time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, supp> rted by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE V.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in «ases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militi when in actual service in time of war or public db ^er • nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall private property be taken for publio use without just compensation.

ARTICLE VI.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy th» right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the 8tate and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

ARTICLE VH.

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the common law.

ARTICLE V1IL

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor exoessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

ARTICLE IX.

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

ARTICLE X.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

ARTICLE XI.

The judicial powers of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit, in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State.

ARTICLE XII.

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as VicePresident, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as VicePresident, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be cdunted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of Maroh next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

ARTICLE XIII.

Suction I.—Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Sec. II. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XIV.

Section I.—All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Sec. II.—Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twentyone years of age in such State.

Sec. III.—No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Sec. IV.—The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Sec. V7—The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XV.

Section I.—The right of citizens of the United States to vote shah not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Sec II.—The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Construction of the Constitution.—The interpretation of a law by a tribunal is the declaration by that tribunal of the meaning of the law as derived from its terms merely. When the mere words are not sufficient to yield this meaning, recourse is had to " construction " of the law, the intention of the law-makers and the circumstances under which it was passed being taken into consideration. Construction begins where interpretation ends. It is evident that the construction of general provisions of the United States Constitution, applying them to particular cases, offers ground for wide differences of opinion as to powers granted or acts permitted. The view that the strict letter of the Constitution must be adhered to in all cases is called the strict construction theory. The view that the Constitution should be liberally construed, thus giving to the Federal Government much power denied to it under the other view,is called the broad or loose construction theory. The tendency of this construction is to centralization by strengthening the hands of the Federal Government. It is plain that a political party espousing the former view would shift its position but little with time, the letter of the Constitution being its sheet-anchor, while the body supporting the latter view would appear in forms varying with the particular cause advocated by

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