claimed to be American seamen and refused to fight in the British navy against the United States. Some of these seamen had been imprisoned for years before the war broke out. The prisoners, not being released immediately on their hearing of the treaty of peace, grew impatient. Rigorous discipline and lack of satisfactory food further excited them, and there were signs of insubordination. On April 6, 1815, the guard fired on them, killing several and wounding more. This occurrence was probably the result of a mistake, but when the news of it reached this country it was called the "Dartmoor Massacre," and excited bitter feelings against England.

Dartmouth College Case.—A controversy arose in 1815-16 between the Legislature of New Hampshire and the corporation of Dartmouth College, caused chiefly by the removal of the president of that institution by the trustees in consequence of a local religious dispute. The Legislature in 1816 passed acts changing the name of Dartmouth College to Dartmouth University, and creating a new corporation, to which its property was transferred. The old trustees began suit for the recovery of the property, and in the highest court of the State were defeated. The case (The Trustees of Dartmouth College vs. Woodward) was then taken on writ of error to the United States Supreme Court. Daniel Webster made a great argument, claiming that the acts of the Legislature violated Article 1, section 10, clause 1 of the Constitution of the United States, which provides that "No State shall . . . pass any . . . law impairing the obligation of contracts," and that these acts were therefore unconstitutional and void. The decision of the Supreme Court, rendered in 1819, upheld this view. It settled the law that a charter granted to a private corporation was a contract which could not be altered in a material point without the consent of those who held it, unless the power of revision is reserved to the Legislature by a clause in the charter or a general law of the State. This decision is one of the most important ever rendered by the Supreme Court.

Davis, Jefferson, was born in Christian County, Kentucky, June 3,1808. He graduated at West Point. In politics he was a Democrat, and as such served in the House of Representatives as member from Mississippi from 1845 to 1846. From 1847 to 1851, and from 1857 to 1861 he was in tho Senate. Under Pierce he was Secretary of War. He was one of the group of Southern Senators that was chiefly instrumental in bringing about secession. He was chosen President of the Confederacy by the provisional Congress and inaugurated. He was again chosen by a popular vote and inaugurated a second time, February 22, 1862. After the war he was imprisoned for two years and then released on bail. He was never restored to citizenship. While President of the Confederacy he was constanly interfering with his generals, his own estimate of his military attaiments being very high,and many of the Southern disasters are laid at his door. He died Dec.6, 1889.

Davis-Wade Manifesto.—In May, 1864, a bill was introduced in Congress by Henry Winter Davis, providing for a scheme of reconstruction for States in rebellion (see Reconstruction). This bill was carried in both Houses, and one hour before the adjournment of Congress it was placed before the President, who refused to sign it, thus preventing its becoming a law. On July 8th the President issued a proclamation, having attached to it a copy of the bill, in which he recited these facts, and while declaring that he was not prepared to commit himself to any one plan of reconstruction, nor to set aside the new governments of Arkansas and of Louisiana, nor "to declare a constitutional competency in Congress to abolish slavery in States " (though hoping for its abolition by a constitutional amendment), he yet was satisfied with the scheme of the bill" as one very proper plan for the loyal people of any State choosing to adopt it, and to such he promised all aid in carrying it out. Thereupon Davis and Benjamin F. Wade (who had aided in preparing the bill) issued a manifesto impugning President Lincoln's motives, which they declared to be a desire to aid his own reelection by means of the votes of Louisiana and Arkansas, asserting that the substance of the bill had been before the country a year and that he was therefore familiar with it, but that he himself had schemed to delay it, that " he discards the authority of the Supreme Court and strides headlong toward the anarchy " he had inaugurated. The influence of the manifesto in the election was small. The bill was introduced at the next session of Congress, but it was laid on the table.

Deadhead in the Enterprise. (See I do not Feel that I Shall Prove a Deadhead in the Enterprise if I Once Embark in It.)

Deadlock is the state of affairs in which the business of a legislative assembly is blocked through the obstructions of a minority, or where in an election for officers by a legislative assembly neither party has suf-ficient votes to elect its candidate and neither will yield or compromise; as where more than a majority vote is required to elect, or there is a tie or a majority of the members (present or not present) is requisite and all cannot be induced to attend. The term is also applied to a stoppage of legislative business by reason of the refusal of either of the Houses to yield on a question on which there is a difference of opinion between them.

Debt of the United States—The debt of the United States, as reported to the first Congress at its second session, 1790-1791, by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, consisted of the foreign debt, domestic debt and State debts. The Secretary recommended that these latter be assumed by the general government, and after considerable discussion this was agreed to. The debt then stood:

Domestic debt $42,414,086

Foreign debt 11,710,378

State debta (as Anally assumed) 18,271,786

Total $78,396,249

The foreign debt consisted of money due in France, Holland and Spain, for loans made to us during the Revolution.

In 1836 the treasury had on hand a surplus of over $40,000,000, all but $5,000,000 of which was ordered by Congress to be distributed among the States, on certain conditions and in four installments. Three of these were paid, but the turn taken by financial affairs rendered the payment of the fourth inexpedient. The increase between 1847 and 1849 was due to the Mexican War. Between 1852 and 1857 over $53,000,000 of the debt was purchased in the market by the government, about $8,000,000 being paid as premium. After the panic of 1857 the debt began to increase; the sudden enormous increase in 1862 was caused by the Civil War. During that struggle in 1866 the debt reached the highest point in the history of the country, and Bince then it has been paid off so rapidly that the problem now before the country is not how to raise money, but to keep down the revenues. (See Surplus). The total amount of loans issued by the government up to the outbreak of the Civil War was $505,353,591.95 ; between that time and July 1,1880, there was issued $10,144,589,408.69; and since then 3£ per cent. bonds to the amount of $460,461,050, matured 5 and 6 per cent. bonds extended being at that rate, and 3 per cent. bonds to the amount of $304,204,350, for the purpose of extending the above-mentioned 3£ per cent. bonds. (See Refunding of United States Debt!)

The present debt of the United States may be divided into three parts: (1) the interest bearing debt, consisting of bonds of various denominations; (2) the debt on which interest has ceased since maturity, which is a total of overdue bonds outstanding that have never been presented for payment; (3) debt bearing no interest, which includes old demand notes, the legal-tender notes, certificates of deposit, and gold and silver certificates. The total debt of the United States according to the last report of the treasury Department, December, 1891, was $1,546,961,695.61, and the cash balance in the Treasury was $139,126,917.96.

Below is given a statement of the debt since July 1, 1856, being debt less cash in the treasury.


1856 810,965,953

1857 9,998,621

1858 87,900,191

1859 53,405,234

1860 69,904,402

1861 87,718,660

1868 605,312,753

1863 1,111,350,737

1864 1,709,452,277

1865 2,674,815,856

1865 2,756,431,571

1866 2,636,036,163

1867 2,508,161,211

1868 2,480,853,413

1869 2,482,771,873

1870 2,331,169,956

1871 2,246,994,068

1872 8,149,780,530

1873 2,105,462,060

1874 2,104,149,168

1875 2,090,041,170

1876 2,060,925,340

1877 2,019,275,431

1878 1,999,382,280

1879 1,996,414,906

1880 1,919,386,747

1881 1,819,650,154

1882 1,675,023,474

1883 1,538,781,825

1884 1,488,542,995

1885 1,375,352,443

1886 1,288,145,840

1887 1,279.428,737

1888, January 1 1,225,598,401

1889, December 1 1,056.081,004

1890, " 1 873,435,936

1891, " 1 798,604,945

Debt, Imprisonment for.—New York was the first State in the u nited States to abolish imprisonment for debt. This was done in 1831, and the example was shortly followed by the other States; and though there is great difference in the insolvent laws of the several States, they all permit debtors their freedom—except in cases wherein . dishonesty or peculation renders the debtor also amenable to the Penal Code.

Decatur, Stephen, was born at Sinnepuxent, Md., January 5, 1779, and entered the navy in 1798. During the war with Tripoli he led a small party which burned the Philadelphia, an American vessel, which had been captured by, and was in possession of the enemy. For his bravery on this occasion he was promoted to the rank of captain. In 1815 he led a squadron against the

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