the President are defined in Article 2 of the Constitution. The executive is of necessity the only means of communication between our government and foreign powers, and great latitude is allowed to the President on this subject, his action being subject only to the approval of - the Senate by a two-thirds vote in case of treaties, and by a majority vote in cases of diplomatic appointments. The President has limited control over Congress, the veto enabling him to throttle legislation to which he is opposed, unless two-thirds of each House concur in passing the measure over his veto. The appointing power of the President is subject to the confirmation of the Senate. The war powers of the President are the powers vested in him by virtue of his position as commander-in-chief of the army and navy. These are never exercised except in the case of actual war, and are even then subject to the control of Congress, in which resides the power of granting or withholding supplies. During the administrations of Washington and Adams, the annual message of the President to Congress was read by him to the Houses, and personal interviews between the President and the Senate took place on several occasions. With Jefferson these practices came to an end, and a subsequent attempt to revive the latter failed. All communications between the President and Congress now take the form of resolutions on the part of Congress, and of a message to either or both of the Houses on the part of the President. Resolutions of inquiry directed to the head of any department are answered by letters addressed to the presiding officer of the House desiring the information. The judiciary and the executive bear no official relations to each other after the initial appointment of the former by the latter. The Supreme Court has time and again refused in any way to interfere with the political acts of the executive. The President's term is four years. He is chosen by electors selected as the Legislatures of the States direct, which is now by a popular vote. (See Electoral System.) In 1789 the President's salary was fixed at $25,000 per annum. The Act of March 3, 1872, increased this amount to $50,000. At the following session an attempt was made to repeal this increase. It passed Congress, was vetoed by Grant, and failed to pass over the veto. In case of inability on the part of the President to perform the duties of his office, it devolves on the Vice-President. The further regulation of this subject is left to Congress. For the rules established under this power see President; Presidential Succession.

Executive Departments. (See Interior, Department of the; Justice, Department of; Navy, Department of the; Post Office Department; State Department; Treasury Department; War Department.)

Executive Session is the name applied to sessions of the Senate held for the transaction of executive business; that is, the confirmation of nominations of the President, or the ratification of treaties. These sessions are secret. The clerks that are necessarily present are sworn to secrecy, and violation of the oath may lead to dismissal and punishment for contempt. The punishment of Senators for revealing the proceedings is expulsion. Nevertheless, the proceedings appear in the- newspapers with considerable regularity, and to a great extent the rule is a dead letter. The subject of making these sessions open is being agitated at present. Whether any part of the proceedings of either House is to be public or secret is a matter subject to the exclusive control of the House affected. The rules of the House of Representatives provide for secret sessions under certain circumstances.

Exequatur is an official recognition of a consul or commercial agent by the government to which he is sent, authorizing him to perform his duties in that country. It is a Latin word, meaning "let him perform."

Expatriation means the act or state of banishment from one's native country, and it also means the voluntary renunciation of the rights and liabilities of citizenship in one country to become the citizen or subject of another. It is in this latter sense that it is used here. In the early part of this century, the United States was almost the only nation that claimed for individuals the right of expatriation without the consent of the government of which they were citizens or subjects. The European nations, as a rule, maintained, that the permission of the sovereign was necessary; and the enforcement by England of this claim was one of the causes of the War of 1812. Fortunately England did not carry into practice the theoretical extreme of her doctrine, which would have permitted her to hang as traitors all prisoners captured in that war who had once been British subjects. It must be said, however, that notwithstanding the position of the United States in regard to citizens or subjects of foreign powers, the right of voluntary renunciation of allegiance to the United States by one of our citizens was unsettled, so far as legislation was concerned, until the Act of Congress of July 27, 1868, asserted that expatriation "is a natural and inherent right of all people/" but the action of the Department of State had previously seemed practically to admit the right. As far as foreign states are concerned, however, the United States has steadily maintained its original position. The first formal recognition of its claims was secured in an expatriation treaty with the North German Confederation, signed February 22, 1868. England first recognized the right of voluntary expatriation by act of parliament in 1870, and immediately concluded an expatriation treaty with the United States. All the leading nations of Europe now recognize the right, including besides those just mentioned, France, Austria, Russia, Italy and Spain. (See Naturalization.)

Expenditures and Receipts of the United States.—Besides the annual expenditure of the government as given under the heading Appropriations, there are "permanent annual appropriations," which cause expenditure by reason of provisions in existing laws involving outlays which thus need no especial appropriations. These are: 1. Specific, including (a) cost of collection of customs revenue, $5,500,000; (J) arming and equiping the militia of the United States, $200,000; (c) interest at six per cent, to the Smithsonian Institute on the hequest held by the government for it, $39,000 per annum; and 2. Indefinite, including interest on the public debt, amount required for sinking fund, and numerous similar requirements. The total receipts of the United States from the beginning of the government to the present time, 1892, exclusive of loans, have been $11,862,357,521, while the expenditures for the same period have been $12,562,064,702. From 1866 to 1891, the receipts were sufficiently in excess of the expenditures for the accumulation of a surplus of about $115,000,000. (See Surplus.) By the passage of additional pension bills, siice the latter date, however, the expenditures of the government are now materially in excess of the revenue.

Explorations and Important Events.—On the

3d of August, 1492, a little before sunrise, Christopher Columbus set sail from the port of Palos, in Spain, under the patronage of Queen Isabella, to discover a western passage to the Indies, and any lands that might intervene on the way. On the 13th of October, the same year, about two hours before midnight, a light was discovered. Morning came, and an island appeared in view. It was named San Salvador. Thus was the New World discovered.

1518.—Florida discovered by Ponce de Leon, and taken possession of for Spain.

1687.—California discovered by Cortez.

1583.—Northeast coast of America taken possession of by the English.

1586.—Tobacco introduced into England by Sir Walter Raleigh.

1614.—" New England " so called for the first time.

1619.—Slavery introduced into Virginia by the Dutch.

1680.—Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth.

1680.—Settlement of Massachusetts Bay Colony at Boston.

1631.—First Vessel built in New England.

1636.—Providence founded by Roger Williams.

1640.—Use of tobacco prohibited by law in Massachusetts.

1653.—A Mint established in New England; "Pine tree" shillings coined.

1673.—New York taken by the Dutch.

1697.—War between the New England Colonies and the Acadians terminated by the peace of Ryswick. 1699.—Woolen Cloth manufactured in New England. 1708.—Massachusetts first issues paper money. 1758.—Invention of the lightning rod by Dr. Franklin.

1765.—Stamp Act passed by Parliament. 3770.—Destruction of tea in Boston Harbor.

1774.—First Continental Congress assembles at Philadelphia September 3.

1776.—Declaration of Independence, July 4.

1776.—British evacuate Boston.

1778.—British evacuate Philadelphia.

1781.—Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown October 19.

1783. —Treaty of peace with England signed at Paris September 8.

1784. —Ratification of treaty by the Continental Congress. , 1787.—Constitution framed in Philadelphia.

1789. —Inauguration of Washington as first President of the United


1790. —Constitution adopted by all the States.

Exports and Imports.—The following table gives the imports of foreign merehandise into, and exportation of domestic and foreign merchandise from, the United States for the years ending June 30th, from 1865 to 1891:

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