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The following table shows the exports and imports of specie for the same period: (See Balance of Trade.)
Exposition, World's Columbian.—The World's Columbian Exposition was created by an act of Congress approved April 25, 1890, entitled, "An act to provide for celebrating the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, by holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufacturers and the products of the soil, mine and sea, in the city of Chicago, in the state of Illinois. The act provided for the appointment of commissioners, who should organize the Exposition, and when these preliminaries were completed, the President was required to make a public proclamation of the fact and officially invite " all the natious of the earth" to participate in the Exposition. This proclamation was issued December 24, 1890, The ceremonies established by the act are in two parts: those to be observed this year, 1892, in the dedication of the buildings of the great Exposition, and those next year attendant upon the formal opening of the Exposition to visitors. The dedicatory ceremonies of this year are as follows: October 12, 1892, the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus, the President of the United States, with the Governors of the various States, and other prominent military and civil dignitaries, will officially participate in imposing ceremonies at Chicago, dedicating the grounds and buildings of the Exposition. The ceremonies are to embrace a four days' celebration. A military encampment will be held during these four days, at which will be present about 10,000 of the National Guard, and such of the regular army as are detailed for the duty.
Wednesday, the 12th, will be ushered in by a salute of forty-eight battery volleys. At ten o'clock the troops will receive the President at the main building of the Exposition, which he will enter, attended by such officials of the Government and members of the diplomatic corps as may be. present. The representatives of the thirteen original States will be received with appropriate ceremonies, and of the remaining States in the order of their admission.
On Thursday, October 13, there will be a grand civic and industrial display, moving through the principal streets of Chicago to Jackson Park. In this display, illustrations of the leading events in the life of Columbus and in the history of our country since its discovery will be given. A grand dedication ball will be given Thursday night.
Immediately upon the conclusion of these dedication ceremomies the work of installing the exhibits will begin.
Ex Post Facto Laws.—Strictly speaking, an ex post facto law is one that takes effect retroactively; that is, on transactions which took place before its passage. The provision in the Constitution of the United States (Article 1, section 9, clause 3), that "no . . . ex post facto law shall be passed," has been interpreted to refer only to crimes, and in that sense the words are commonly used. The following have been decided to come within the scope of the phrase: Every law that makes an action done before its passage, and innocent when done, criminal, and punishes such action; every law that aggravates a crime, or makes it greater than when committed; every law that changes the nature of the punishment, or makes it greater than at the time the act was committed; every law that altejs the rules of evidence so as to make it easier to convict the offender; every law that, while not avowedly relating to crimes, in effect imposes a penalty or the deprivation of a right; every law that deprives persons accused of crime of some lawful protection to which they have become entitled, as a former acquittal. Such laws are therefore unconstitutional so far as they apply to acts committed before their passage.
Expounder of the Constitution.—Daniel Webster was so called from his exhaustive discussions of the Constitution.
Expunging Resolution, Benton's.—The highhanded manner in which President Jackson disposed of the United States bank—for a full account of which see elsewhere in this volume—gave great offense to Congress. As the President's friends in that body were too numerous, however, to make it at all possible to procure a vote for impeachment, the Senate determined to inflict an extra-judicial condemnation on the action of the Executive. Therefore, after an excited debate of three months, it resolved, March 28, 1834, by a vote of 26 to 20, "That the President, in the late executive proceedings in relation to the public revenue, has assumed upon himself authority and power not conferred by the Constitution and laws, but in derogation of both." This resolution made the President quite indignant, and in a special message April 15, he protested against it on the ground that it accused him of perjury in his violating his oath of office, and was thus an indirect and illegal method of impeachment, a condemnation against which he had no opportunity to defend himself. The Senate refused to receive the protest or place it oil record on the journal. Senator Benton, of Missouri, at once gave notice that he would bring forward, every year, a resolution to expunge the vote of censure. After a struggle of three years, the friends of the President carried the expunging resolution, and the resolution of censure was marked around on the journal with broad black lines, and the memorandum "Expunged by order of the Senate, this 16th day of January, 1837."
Exterritoriality.—By a fiction of international law a sovereign, though temporarily in a foreign country, is considered as being on his own territory. By an extension of this principle diplomatic agents that represent the sovereign, and also those that represent the State (as embassadors of republics), are said to enjoy the privilege of exterritoriality, the privilege of living under their own laws while accredited to a foreign nation. They preserve their domiciles as if at home. Their persons, families, attendants and property are inviolable except in extreme cases. In case of a crime committed by a diplomatic representative, unless imperative necessity demands his seizure, the government to which he is accredited merely asks his recall.
Extradition is the delivering up to justice of fugitive criminals by one country or State to another. Extradition "for treason, felony or other crime," between one State of the Union and another is provided for by the Constitution of the United States, Article 4, section 2. An act of Congress passed in 1793 prescribed the form of the demand for the fugitive criminal. The usual course is as follows: He is indicted or a warrant issued for his arrest; a copy of the indictment or warrant is submitted to the executive of the State who then makes a requisition for the criminal on the executive of the State in which he has taken refuge; the latter executive, if satisfied that the papers are regular and sufficient, issues a warrant for the arrest and delivery of the fugitive to the agent of the State demandi ng him. The accused may have these proceedings reviewed by the courts under a writ of habeas cor
made for any reason refuses to surrender the criminal there is no power that can compel him to do so. The words "or other crime" in the section of the Constitution referred to, have been interpreted differently, but the weight of opinion (though this has not always controlled) is that they mean any offense against the laws of the State making the demand. In June, 1887, Governor Hill, of New York, suggested a conference of governors to secure uniform action in inter-state extradition cases. Several States joined with New York in a call for such a conference, and as a consequence delegates representing the governors of nineteen States met at Albany in August, 1887. A committee was appointed by them to submit a bill to Congress for the purpose of making uniform in some respects the practice in these cases.—Extradition between foreign nations is sometimes provided for by the internal laws of a state, and sometimes is a matter of comity, but usually it is provided for by treaty. The latter is the case as between the United States and foreign nations, only one case in our history having occurred (the surrender of Arguelles to Spain in 1864 by Secretary of State Seward) that was done as a matter of comity. Treaties sometimes (those of the United States usually) provide that extradition shall not be granted for acts previously committed nor for political offenses. It is the general practice that a request for extradition shall not be granted before the courts of the country in which the criminal has taken refuge have determined that the evidence would warrant his arrest and commitment for trial where he is found if the offense had been committed there; without this judicial determination the President of the United States cannot surrender a fugitive, but even when rendered he is not thereby forced to do so. The weight of opinion (though the question is not entirely settled) favors the view that a person extradited for one offense cannot be tried for another until he has had an opportunity of