The reported occupations of Immigrants who arrived during the year ending June 30, 1891, were as follows: Laborers, 139,365; farmers, 29,296; Bervants, 28,625; carpenters, 8,776, miners, 3,745; clerks, 3,653; tailors, 3,879; shoe-makers, 2,232; blacksmiths, 1,792; The total number of professional men was 3,236, of skilled laborers, 44,540; of unskilled and miscellaneous, 211,756. (See Population of the United States.)

Illinois.—From the old Indiana Territory (see Territories) Michigan Territory was separated in 1805 and Illinois Territory in 1809, the latter including much of the region north of the present limits of the State. Illinois was admitted as a State on December 3, 1818. The capital is Springfield. The population in 1880 was 3,077,871, and in the last census (1890) 3,826,351. Illinois is entitled to twenty seats in the House of Representatives and twenty-two electoral votes. The latter can be relied on by the Republican party. The name is taken from its principal river, which in turn is derived from the Indian tribe of the Illini, supposed to mean "superior men." Popularly the State is called the Prairie, or Sucker, State, and its inhabitants "suckers." (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Impeachment is the accusation and prosecution by a legislative body of an officer for mal-administration. The portions of the Constitution relating to impeachment are as follows: Article 1, section 2, clause 5; Article 1, section 3, clauses 6 and 7; Article 2, section 4. The President, Vice-President and all civil officers of the United States are liable to impeachment for treason, bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors. The House of Representatives has the sole right of impeachment, drawing up the accusation and appointing persons to conduct the prosecution before the Senate. The accused is tried by the Senate, over which, when the President is impeached, the Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court presides. A two-thirds vote of the Senators present is necessary to conviction. Punishment only extends to removal from, and disqualification to hold, office under the United States, but the convicted person is still liable to an ordinary trial according to law. The President has not the power to pardon in cases of impeachment. Impeachments of State officers are provided for by the Constitutions of the various States. Seven impeachments of federal officers are known to our history. Only two of these resulted in convictions. I.—William Blount was a Senator from Tennessee. Certain papers which President Adams transmitted to Congress in July, 1797, showed that Blount had, while Governor of his State, been engaged in a scheme for transferring by force from Spain to Great Britain the territory on the Lower Mississippi. He was expelled from the Senate. A year later the House presented articles of impeachment, and the trial commenced in December, 1798. One of the points raised by Blount's counsel was that he, as Senator, was not a "civil officer," and consequently not liable to impeachment, and the Senp.te upheld this plea and acquitted Blount for want of jurisdiction. II.—John Pickering was United States District Judge for the district of New Hampshire. In March, 1803, he was impeached and tried for making unlawful decisions, and for drunkenness and profanity on the bench. By a party vote, the Federalists voting in his favor, he was convicted on March 12th and removed from office. III.—Samuel Chase, of Maryland, was an Associate-Justice of the Supreme Coui-t of the United States. In the latter part of 1804 he was impeached for unwarranted actions in several political trials, and for language reflecting on the government. The trial began on January 2, 1805. On some of the articles of impeachment a majority were in his favor; on others a majority were against him. The largest vote for conviction on any one article was nineteen to fifteen. He was therefore acquitted on March 1, 1805, and held his judicial position till his death, about six years later. IV.—James H. Peck was United States District Judge for the district of Missouri. He was impeached for arbitrary conduct in a judicial proceeding. The trial commenced on December 13, 1830, and he was pronounced not guilty, twenty-one voting for conviction and twenty-four for acquittal. V.—West H. Humphreys was United States District Judge for the district of Tennessee. He failed to resign his seat though engaged on the Confederate side during the Civil War, and was consequently impeached and conr victed on June 26, 1862, by a unanimous vote. VI.— Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, had come into sharp conflict with Congress on the questions connected with reconstruction, and the breach between the executive and the national legislature widened till it grew into an impeachment—the only impeachment of a President in our history, and one of the most noted in the world's history. On March 2, 1867, Congress passed what is known as the Tenure of Office Act. (See Term and Tenure of Office.) It was vetoed by the President and passed over his veto. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, was not willing to lend himself to Johnson's schemes of reconstruction. Therefore, on August 12, 1867, the President suspended him and appointed General Grant secretary ad interim. When

suspension before it, but that body, in January, refused its sanction, and Stanton therefore resumed his office. On February 21, 1868, Johnson again removed Stanton and appointed in his place General Lorenzo Thomas. Stanton, supported by a resolution of the Senate, refused to vacate his office. The House of Representatives on February 24th adopted a resolution for the impeachment of Johnson by a vote which stood: yeas 126, nays 47, not voting 17; and on the 25th a committee of the House appeared before the Senate and impeached the President. The House appointed to conduct the prosecution, John A. Bingham, of Ohio; George S. Boutwell and Benjamin F. Butler, of Massachusetts; James F. Wilson, of Iowa; Thomas Williams and Thaddeus Stevens, of Pennsylvania, and John A. Logan, of Illinois. The President was represented by the following counsel: Henry Stanbery and W. S. Groesbeck, of Ohio; William M. Evarts, of New York; Thomas A. R. Nelson, of Tennessee, and Benjamin R. Curtis, of Massachusetts. The articles of impeachment, eleven in number, were presented to the Senate on March 5th. In brief, they charged that the President, in violation




reasons for the of the Tenure of Office Act, had removed Stanton and appointed Thomas; that he had been guilty of intimidation of the former and of an attempt to seize unlawfully the property and money of the War Department; that he had declared that the Thirty-ninth Congress was not a legally constituted body; and that he had failed to properly execute its acts. The counsel for the President replied that the removal of Stanton and the appointment of Thomas did not come within the provisions of the Tenure of Office Act, but were legal according to the laws of 1789 and 1795, which were the only controlling ones in this case; that he was not guilty of the other charges, except those in regard to his declarations concerning Congress, and that as to those he was protected by the rights of freedom of opinion and freedom of speech. The Senate was or

fanized as a court for the trial of the President on larch 5th, Chief-Justice Salmon P. Chase, presiding. After various preliminaries, the taking of evidence commenced on March 30th. This was finished by April 20th, and by May 6th the counsel had finished their arguments. On May 16th a vote was taken on the article which concerned Johnson's declaration as to the constitutionality of the Thirty-ninth Congress and his desire to prevent the enforcement of its acts. The vote lacked one of a sufficient number to convict. It stood thirty-five for conviction and nineteen for acquittal, seven Republicans voting in the minority with the twelve Democratic members of the Senate. On May 26th a vote was taken on the articles involving the legality of Thomas' appointment with the same result. No vote was taken on the other articles, the court adjourned sine die, and by direction of Chief-Justice Chase a verdict of acquittal was entered. VII.—William W. Belknap in 1876 was Secretary of War under Grant. On the 2d of March, 1876, the House unanimously voted to impeach Belknap for having received at different times $24,450 for appointing and retaining in office a post-trader at Fort Sill, Indian Territory. A few hours before this resolution was passed Belknap had resigned his office and Grant accepted the resignation. On April 4th the articles of impeachment were presented to the Senate. Belknap claimed that being no longer a civil officer of the United States he was not liable to impeachment. During May the Senate debated this question, and finally by a vote of thirty-seven to twenty-nine, declared that it had jurisdiction notwithstanding the resignation. During July the trial proceeded, and on August 1st a vote was taken. On three of the articles the vote stood thirty-six to twenty-five for conviction, on another thirty-five to twenty-five for conviction, and on another thirty-seven to twenty-five for conviction, the minority holding that Belknap, being out of office, was not liable on impeachment proceedings. As the necessary twothirds vote was not obtained, Belknap was acquitted.

Imports. (See Exports and Imports.)

Impressment. (See War of 1812.)

Incidental Protection. (See Tariffs of the United States.)

Income Tax.—An income tax has been levied by the United States Government but once in its history, and then it was established because of the necessity for revenue caused by the Civil War. An act passed in 1861 created a tax of three per cent. on incomes of $800 per annum and over. The rates of taxation, the amounts of the incomes taxed, and the proportion of the income exempt from taxation, were changed by various acts till in 1872 it was abolished. The amounts collected by this tax are given in the following table:

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Some arrears have since been collected, making the total derived from the income tax $346,911,760.48. (See Internal Revenue.)

Independents.—This name is applied in politics to voters whose party fealty is not so strong as to bind them to! the support of the nominee of their party if they dis

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