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The Secretary receives a salary of $8,000; he is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, and is (by custom, not by law) a member of the President's Cabinet. A list of the Secretaries of the Interior is appended:

Thomas Ewlngr, Ohio J?49"18^

James A. Pearce, Maryland 1850-1850

Thomas M. T. McKennon, Pennsylvania 1850-1850

Alexander H. H. Stuart, Virginia 1850-1853

Robert McClelland, Michigan 1853-1857

Jacob Thompson, Mississippi 1857-1861

Caleb B. Smith, Indiana 1861-1863

John P. Usher, Indiana, Jan. 8, 1863, and re-ap-
pointed March, 4 and April 15,1865 1868-1868

James Harlan, Iowa J^iHxS

O. H. Browning, Illinois 1866-,

Jacob D. Cox, Ohio 1869-1870

Columbus Delano, Ohio, 1870, and re-appointed

March 4, 1873 JF'HfS

Zachariah Chandler, Michigan 18i5-1877

Carl Schurz, Missouri ;5T~Jx£

Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa JXi

Henry M. Teller, Colorado JSHSS

L. Q. C. Lamar, Mississippi ?2; JsK

William F. Vilas, Wisconsin 188.-1889

John W. Noble, Missouri 1889 ....

Interior, Secretary of the. (See Interior, Department of the.)

Internal Improvements.—From the beginning of this government until the year I860 the question of a system of internal improvements carried on by the general government was a party question. The Eepubhcan (Democratic-Republican), and after it the Democratic party as the party of strict construction, opposed such a system. Improvements, the property in which remains in the general government, as light-houses and the like, were not opposed, but improvements on rivers and roads, the benefits of which passes to the States, were the objects of attack. Most of the earlier States were on the seacoast, and the improvement of their harbors was at first carried on by means of tonnage taxes on the commerce of the port, levied with the consent of Congress (see Constitution, Article 1, section 10, clause 3). But a tax on tonnage is a tax on the consumer of the goods carried in the vessel, and the growth of inland States rendered it unjust thus indirectly to tax them in the price of articles consumed in order to improve the harbors of the sea-coast States, and although this practice was in isolated cases continued until the middle of the century, it was generally discontinued much earlier. As early as 1806 the improvement of roads by the National government was conceived iu order to indemnify the interior States (see Cumberland Road), and in 1823 the improvement by the National government directly of rivers and harbors was begun. The Republican (Democratic-Republican) Presidents, Jefferson, Madison and Monroe, opposed these improvements as unconstitutional, although toward the end of his term Monroe became more favorable to the system. John Quincy Adams was a warm advocate thereof and Jackson its stern opponent. Although the Democrats opposed any general system of improvements they continued to apply funds to particular purposes. The Whigs now adopted the syBtem originated by the Democrat Jackson, namely, the distribution of the surplus among the States. (See Surplus.) But once did the Whigs attempt to put this into execution, and then in 1841 the veto of President Tyler, at odds with his party in Congress, put an end to that scheme, which has not since been revived. The introduction of railroads has done away with the question of improvements for roads, while a system of assistance to the railroads by means of the grant of land along the line of their route has sprung up. These grants have been made to many railroads in new sections of the country; enormous tracts, in several cases between forty and fifty million acres being so granted. From this policy a revulsion has now set in, and the present tendency is to the recovery of as much of the land so granted as has not been earned by a strict compliance with the tsrms of the grant. To this both of the great political parties stand committed. (See Party Platforms.) The aid rendered the Pacific railroads is referred to under that head. In 1860 both parties favored the completion of this work by the government. (See also River and Harbor Bills.)

Internal Revenue.— The moneys collected under tlie internal revenue bureau in the Treasury Department are called the internal revenue of the United States. The term includes most of the receipts from national taxes except customs duties, but as commonly restricted it does not embrace receipts from the sale of public lands, patent fees, postal receipts, and the like, which are really sources of internal revenue. Under Article 1, section 8, clause 1, of the Constitution, Congress has power "to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises . . . but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States." Section 9, clause 4, of the same article, provides that direct taxes shall be apportioned among the States only in proportion to the population. The first internal revenue tax imposed by Congress was by the Act of March 3,1791, which provided for a tax on distilled spirits of domestic manufacture, discriminating in favor of those produced from domestic materials and against those produced from foreign materials. The enforcement of this tax led to the Whisky Insurrection (which see). In 1794 taxes were levied on carriages, retail selling of wines and foreign distilled liquors, on snuff, sugar and sales at auction. In 1797 taxes were laid on stamped vellum, parchment and paper. In 1798 the first direct tax of its kind, one of $2,000,000, was apportioned among the States, and it was proposed that it should be levied on dwelling-houses, slaves and land. The tax of 1791 was levied to establish the principle of national taxation; that of 1794 from fear of hostilities with England; that of 1798 because of the threatened war with France. On Jefferson's accession to the presidency, and on his recommendation, all internal taxes were repealed in 1802, and no others were authorized till 1813. Then the war with England necessitated an increased revenue, and most of the old taxes were re-imposed. These were to cease a year after the close of the war, for the maintenance of which they were levied, but.they were afterward continued for a while for the payment of the national debt. In 1814 increased need of money led to an augmentation in the amount of these direct and other internal taxes, and to the first imposition of taxes on other domestic manufactures than sugar, snu£E and spirits, such as iron, candles, hats, playing-cards, umbrellas, beer, ale, harness, boots, plate, household furniture, gold and silver watches, etc. The return of peace brought the abolition of direct taxes, excise duties and other internal taxes, and from 1818 to 1861 none of these were levied. The Civil War forced a renewal of the internal revenue system, and in 1861 a direct tax of 120,000,000 was apportioned among the States, though it was not collected till a year later. On July 1, 1862, an exhaustive internal revenue act was passed, levying taxes on all sorts and kinds of articles too numerous to mention, on trades, incomes, sales, manufactures, legacies, etc. The bill was ill-considered and needed frequent modifications. More than twenty-five acts on the same subject were passed within the next six years. A few industries were taxed out of existence, but all were more or less disturbed. However, enormous revenues were raised and the people submitted without opposition to the necessities of the case. Extensive reductions were made after the war had ceased, by various acts in 1866, 1867 and 1868. Further reductions were made in 1872, when, among others, stamp taxes, except that of two cents on checks, drafts and orders, were abolished. Various acts since 1872 have reduced the subjects of internal revenue taxation to their present numbers, tobacco, spirits, fermented liquors, bank circulation and, by Act of August 2, 1886, oleomargarine.

The total amount derived from internal revenue from 1865 to 1891 inclusive, including commissions allowed on sales of adhesive stamps, was $3,965,454,451.

International Expositions.—The idea of an exhibition of the industries of all nations is said to have been suggested by Mr. Whishaw, secretary of the Society of Arts, London, in 1844. The first direct movement in favor of it, however, was made by Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria. He was president of the Society of Arts, and June 30, 1849, called a meeting of the society at Buckingham Palace, and proposed that it should take the initiative in getting up an industrial fair, to which all the countries of the world should be invited to contribute. The society at once took up the idea and used all the means in their power to promote it. Early in 1850 they appointed a formal commission, with Prince Albert at its head, to promote the scheme. A few days later a meeting was held at the Mansion House, London, to raise funds, and £10,000 were at once subscribed. In a short time a guarantee fund of £200,000 was obtained and the project was fairly begun. The first nation to follow the brilliant example of Great Britain was, of course, the United States, and the second "Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations " was opened at New York, July 14, 1853. It was held like that of Great Britain in a crystal palace, a building constructed entirely of glass and iron, and built expressly for it. The preparation and manaugement of this exhibition were undertaken by a stock company. The exhibition on this occasion was probably even more complete and magnificent than that of Great Britain, for the idea had gained in favor now with all nations, and no civilized country failed to send samples of its best work in art and manufacture. This fair was open four months. Since then international exhibitions have been held in all the principal cities of Europe, and in this country the Centennial Exposition held at Philadelphia in 1876 demonstrated the popularity of these exhibitions.

International Law consists of rules for the conduct of different nations and their subjects with respect to each other, which rules are deducted from reason, justice

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