Congress from 1774 to 1777 and in 1778 and 1779, during the latter years as its president. He was also ChiefJustice of his State. In 1779 he became Minister to Spain, and in 1783 was one of the negotiators of the Treaty of Paris. He then became Secretary of Foreign Affairs until 1789, when he was appointed Chief-Justice of the United States. He was next engaged in the negotiation of the treaty that became known as Jay's Treaty (which see). From 1795 to 1801 he was Governor of New York State. He then retired to private life.

Jay's Treaty.—The treaty of 1783, which closed the Revolution, provided that the British should evacuate all forts within the territory of the United States. England's delay in fulfilling this stipulation, her authorization to privateers to seize neutral vessels trading in the French West Indies, and the rights of search and impressment which she claimed, led President Washington i n the early part of 1794 to appoint Chief-Justice John Jay minister extraordinary to Great Britain for the purpose of negotiating a treaty. The result of Jay's efforts was submitted to the Senate for ratification in June, 1795, and soon received the sanction of that body and was completed by Washington's signature. It provided for a speedy evacuation of the forts on what were then our northern and northwestern frontiers, arranged for compensation for illegal seizures, and regulated commercial questions to some extent, but it recognized by implication the right of search and was not wholly satisfactory in other points. The question of its endorsement by the government led to a bitter discussion, during which copies of the treaty and effigies of Jay were publicly burned and the most outrageous charges were made against Washington "in terms," as he said, "so exaggerated and indecent as could scarcely be applied to a Nero, a notorious defaulter, or even to a common pickpocket." The President, nevertheless, believing the treaty on the whole to be the best that could be obtained, lent the weight of his influence in its favor, and the House of Representatives in April, 3 796, by a vote of 51 to 48 finally decided to carry it into effect. The discussion in the House gave occasion to Fisher Ames, of Massachusetts, for a remarkable speech in defense of the treaty.

Jefferson Democrats. (See Clintonian Democrats.)

Jeffersonian Democrat.—Democrats delight in applying this designation to any public man of their party whose simplicity, directness, sympathy with the people and views on public economy meet their approbation.

Jeffersonian Simplicity.—Thomas Jefferson intensely disliked all display. He objected even to the title of Mister; he refused to wear knee-breeches and wore pantaloons; he abolished the presidential levees, and in going to the Capitol to his inauguration he rode on horseback alone. The Democratic party, deriving as it does, many of its principles from Jefferson, has always affected to follow him in the matter of simplicity.

Jefferson, Thomas, was born at Shadwell, Virginia, April 2, 1743; he died on the same day with John Adams, July 4, 1826, at Monticellof Virginia. He graduated at William and Mary College and became a member of the bar. He was a member of the House of Burgesses from 1769 to 1774; between 1775 and 1778 he was a member of the Continental Congress; it was he that wrote the Declaration of Independence (but few changes were made in his draft of that document). In 1779 he became Governor of Virginia, and retained the post until 1781. He represented this country abroad first generally and then in France. He became Secretary of State under Washington, and represented in the latter's Cabinet those principles of strict construction that formed at least the theoretical basis of the party founded by him, the Democratic-Republican. Elected Vice-President under Adams in 1797, he was elected in 1801 to succeed the latter, and served as President two terms. The principal events of his administration were the purchase of Louisiana (by far the most important) (see Annexations I.), the war with the Barbary pirates, and the embargo. At the end of his second term he retired to his home at Monticello where he passed the remainder of his life. He was the founder of the Democratic-Republican party, a party that lias existed to the present day. Though of aristocratic birth his sympathies were intensely popular; he hated display and pomp and carried his love of simplicity to the extreme of objecting even to so harmless a title as Mister. His influence on the government has been to check the tendency to extreme centralization which, if developed, might have led to a nation too unpliable and unwieldy for long life, and has made it the admirable combination of pliability and resistance that it is. (See State Sovereignty; Kentucky Resolutions of 1798.)

Jingoism.—This word arose in British politics. During the war between Russia and Turkey, English sympathy was most strongly with Turkey and hostile to Russia. A song became popular the refrain of which was:

"We don't want to fight, but, by Jingo, If we do— We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money, too."

From this arose the name jingoism as applied to the war feeling against Russia. The term has, however, come to mean in politics, any advocacy of national bluster. It is sometimes used in this country.

Johnny Reb was a name by which the Union soldiers during the Civil War familiarly called the Confederates. Reb is of course an abbreviation for rebel.

Johnson, Andrew, was born at Raleigh, North Carolina, December 29, 1808, and died in Carter County, Tennessee, July 31, 1875. He was mayor of Greenville, Tennessee; member of the State Legislature in 1835 and State Senate in 1841; Congressman from Tennessee from 1843 to 1853. He was at this time a Democrat. From 1853 to 1857 he was Governor of Tennessee, and United States Senator from 1857 to 1862. In 1862 he was appointed Military Governor of Tennessee, and in 1864 the Republicans nominated him as Vice-President. On Lincoln's assassination he became President. He began almost at once to quarrel with Congress, and his impeachment marked the culmination of that conflict. (See Impeachments.) The most important matter during his administration was Reconstruction (which see). Johnson's early education had been neglected to such an extent that it was only after his marriage that he learned to read and write. He was persistent and determined, but blind to the political signs of the times. In 1875 he was elected United States Senator, but served only at the extra session, dying in July.

Johnson, Reverdy, was born at Annapolis, Maryland, May 21, 1796, and died at the same place February 10, 1876. He was a lawyer. He served as Senator from 1845 to 1849, and as Attorney-General under Taylor; during this time he was a Whig. From 1863 to 1868 he was again Senator, this time as a Democrat, and in 1869 he was Minister to Great Britain.

Johnson, Richard Mentor, was born at Bryant's Station, Kentucky, October 17,1781; he died November 19, 1850. He served in the War of 1812. He was a Democrat, and as such served in Congress from 1807 to 1819; from 1820 to 1829 he was in the Senate, and from 1829 to 1839 again in the House. He was the Democratic vice-presidential candidate in 1840.

Judge Lynch.—A popular name for a body of persons who take the law into their own hands in punishing criminals or those suspected of being such. (See Lynch Law.)

Judiciary.—1. National. The third Article of the Constitution provides for the establishment of United States courts to have jurisdiction both in law and in equity. This jurisdiction is in general distinct from, but is sometimes concurrent with, that of the State courts. The system which Congress adopted at its first session remains unaltered in its essentials to the present time, except for the addition of the Court of Claims in 1855. The judges are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. They retain office during

food behavior. The judicial power of the United tates is vested in a Supreme Court, nine Circuit Courts and sixty-one District Courts, besides the Court of Claims. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction only of "cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party;" that is, only such cases can be commenced therein, but cases decided in the other federal courts, under certain prescribed conditions, can be reviewed by the Supreme Court by virtue of its appellate jurisdiction. The limits of the original jurisdictions of the District and Circuit Courts, and the appellate jurisdiction of the latter over the former, are provided by law. Beside other matters, the Circuit Court has exclusive jurisdiction of patent suits and the District Court of admiralty cases. The Court of Claims has jurisdiction of claims against the United States. The Justices of the Supreme Court, besides their functions a3 such, are each assigned to one of the circuits, being then known as Circuit Justices. There is also a separate Circuit Judge for each circuit, and a District Judge for each district. Circuit Courts may be held by the Circuit Justice, by the Circuit Judge or by the District Judge sitting alone, or by any two of these sitting together. As constituted at first, the Supreme Court consisted of a Chief-Justice and five Associate-Justices, but the number of the latter has been changed from time to 'time, and there are at present eight. (See Chief Justice.) The salary of the Chief-Justice is $10,500, and of Associate-Justices $10,000 per annum. The Court is at present constituted as follows: Chief-Justice, Melville W. Fuller, of Illinois; Associate-Justices, Stephen J. Field, California; Joseph P. Bradley, New Jersey; Jno. M. Harlan, Kentucky; Horace Gray, Massachusetts; S. Blatchford, New York; L. Q. C. Lamar, Mississippi; D. J. Brewer, Kansas; H. B. Brown, Michigan. Besides these regular federal courts, the Senate sits when necessary as a court of impeachment; the District of Columbia has a Supreme Court over which the Supreme Court of the United States has appellate jurisdiction; and Territorial Courts are provided, the

{'udges of which are nominated for terms of four years >y the President, and confirmed by the Senate, and over which the Supreme Court has also appellate jurisdiction. Cases decided in the highest court of any State may also be reviewed by the Supreme Couit. but only

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