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table shows the original area of the United States and the areas of the various annexed regions:
Subsequent measurements and changes in boundaries have somewhat changed these figures. (See Area of the United States.) For propositions concerning the annexation of Cuba and Santo Domingo, see Cuba, Annexation of; Santo Domingo, Annexation of. (See also Territories.)
Annual Message of the President to Congress.
(See President's Message.)
Another County Heard From.—During the excitement incident to the Presidential campaign of 1876, this phrase gained currency. The returns were very slowly received from some of the doubtful States, especially in Florida, and each addition to the uncompleted vote was hailed as above.
Anti-Federal Junto.—When it was proposed in the Pennsylvania Legislature to issue a call for a convention to ratify the United States Constitution, nineteen of the members withdrew, leaving the House without a quorum. Enough of these were, however, dragged to the House to allow business to be transacted. September, 1787, sixteen of these same members signed an address against the Constitution; this address contained so many misstatements that it soon became an object of ridicule. To the signers and their followers the name of AntiFederal Junto was given.
Anti-Federalists.—Those that were in favor of the adoption of the Constitution when that instrument was before the people for ratification were called Federalists; those opposed, Anti-Federalists. The objections of these latter may be stated as follows: It was feared
that contests between the States and the Federal government would follow, with the result either that the Union would go down or that the central government would usurp the sovereign powers of the States; further objections were that it contained no bill of rights, no safeguards of liberty, but was just such an instrument as ambitious men would desire for the purpose of furthering their plans. The party was composed principally of local politicians who were jealous of enlarged political relations and of farmers who were fearful of additional taxes. In two States their efforts were of avail, in Rhode Island and North Carolina. In Pennsylvania they offered considerable opposition but were overborne. (See Anti-Federal Junto.) In New York a deadlock between them and the Federalists was the cause of that State's failure to choose electors for the first President. After the adoption of the Constitution the same fears that had made them oppose it, now made them insist on strict construction of its provisions. In Congress they
without organization, and the issue that had called them into life being dead, the party had little existence except in name. By the year 1793 it had become a part of the Republican party. Anti-Ku-Klux Act. (See Ku-Klux Act.) Anti-Lecompton Democrats.—A name applied to those Northern Democrats, among them Stephen A. Douglas, that opposed the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution (which see).
Anti-Masonic Party.—In 1826 William Morgan of Batavia, Genesee County, New York, who had declared his intention of publishing a book containing the secrets of the Society of the Free Masons, was arrested for debt. On his release he was at once hurried to a close carriage and taken to Niagara; he was never again heard from. Some time afterward a body, asserted by some to be his, was found in the river below the falls. The affair created enormous excitement and raised insuperable prejudices against all Free Masons in a large part of the community; the prejudice was carried even into politics
opposed Hamilton's financial
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And many citizens refused to vote for Masons, men, as they declared, who considered the edicts of their fraternity as above the laws of the country. This feeling led the National Republican party in New York to name a State ticket containing no Masons, but an Anti-Mason convention was, notwithstanding, held, and a ticket pledged to oppose Free Masonry was nominated. The vote polled by the Anti-Masons was comparatively small, but the party increased so rapidly that by 1830 it was, in New York, the great opponent of the Democrats, whose head, Andrew Jackson, was a Mason. In 1831 the party held a national convention and nominated William Wirt of Maryland and Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylvania. This ticket received the electoral vote of only Vermont. The party was swallowed up in the Whig party, of which it remained a powerful faction. It maintained a separate existence only in Pennsylvania where in 1835 its nominee for governor was elected. (See American Party II.)
Anti-Monopoly Party.—The Anti-Monopoly Organization of the United States met at Chicago May 14, 1884, and nominated Benjamin F. Butler of Massachusetts for the Presidency. It adopted a platform demanding economical government and the enactment and enforcement of equitable laws, including an InterState Commerce Law (one has since been enacted), establishing Labor Bureaus, providing Industrial Arbitration, a direct vote for Senators, a graduated income tax, payment of the national debt as it matures, and "fostering care" for agriculture; while it denounced the tariff and the grant of land to corporations. Their nominee was also selected by the Greenback Labor party, the joint ticket being known as the People's party. It polled 130,000 votes.
Anti-Nebraska Men.—A name applied to the Northern Whigs that opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Bill in 1854. These were joined by Democrats of similar views, and together they controlled the House in the Thirty-fourth Congress. The Republican party sprang from them
Anti-Prohibitionists are those who oppose the adoption of laws prohibiting the sale of liquor for a beverage.
Anti-Renters, The.—Portions of the land in Albany, Rensselaer, Columbia, Greene, Delaware, Schoharie and Otsego counties in New York State were originally part of large estates belonging to the old Dutch patroons, as they were called. The tenants held the farms by perpetual leases on rents payable in produce. These estates were owned by several of the old families of the State, the Livingstons, the Van Rensselaers, and others. The tenants had long been dissatisfied with this arrangement, and the death, in 1839, of Stephen Van Rensselaer brought matters to a head. Stephen Van Rensselaer had allowed the rents to fall largely in arrears; his son now attempted to collect these rents and was met by organized opposition. Men disguised as Indians terrorized the region. Attempts of the sheriff to collect the rents were likewise unsuccessful; the militia that accompanied him was largely outnumbered and the attempt failed. This was known as the "Helderberg War." For a time the "Anti-Renters " were a political factor in the State, holding the balance of power and using it to serve their own ends. In 1850 the difficulty was compromised, the owners of the manors selling the land to the tenants.
Anti-Slavery. (See Abolitionists.)
Anti-War Democrats.—The Democratic National Convention met August 29, 1864, and among other resolutions censuring the war acts of the government, a resolution was passed declaring it to be "the sense of the American people that after four years of failure to restore the Union by the experiment of war . . . immediate efforts be made for a cessation of hostilities, with a view to an ultimate convention of the States . . . to the end that . . . peace may be restored on the basis of the Federal union of the States." Such Democrats as favored these views were known as "AntiWar Democrats." The same term was applied to those members of the early Democratic party that opposed the war of 1812. They sided on this point with the Federalists against the majority of their own party. 'Those who opposed the war and wished for peace at any price were called "submission men."
Articles of Confederation.—On June 11, 1776, the Colonial Congress, assembled in Philadelphia, resolved to appoint a committee, consisting of one member from each colony, to prepare a form of confederation to be entered into between the colonies. The committee reported, a few changes were made in the wording of the document that they submitted, and on November 15, 1777, it was agreed to by Congress. It was submitted to the States for ratification, and it was provided that it should be conclusive when signed by the delegates of all the States, as these should authorize the ratification. On the 9th of July, 1778, it was signed on behalf of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence plantations, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina. It was signed for North Carolina on July 21st, for Georgia on July 24th, and for New Jersey on November 26th. One delegate of Delaware signed on Feburary 12, 1779, and the other two on May 5th. On March 1, 1781, the delegates of Maryland signed, and on the next day, March 2, 1781, Congress assembled under its new powers. By this instrument, known as the "Articles of Confederation," the United States were governed before the adoption of the Constitution. While these articles gave to Congress power to perform many of the acts of a sovereign government, they gave to it no power to enforce its own commands, and as a consequence it was impossible in spite of strenuous efforts to raise revenue. The debt, principal and interest, fell into arrears, the soldiers of the Revolution remained unpaid and Congress could not even induce the States to give it power to retaliate on nations bent on ruining our trade. The attendance of members in Congress grew smaller and smaller, and it required an especial appeal to have the quorum necessary for the ratification of the treaty of peace with Great Britain. July 14, 1788, the ratifi