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cial marine from the seas, to divert our capital into other channels or to foreign shipping, to close our shipyards and to deprive us of a valuable interest, shiprepairing. The navigation laws and their operation are not easy to be grasped thoroughly by the people generally, but the effect they have had on our shipping interests shows that they are radically defective and have failed to accomplish the object intended, namely, the protection and encouragement of these interests.

Navy, Department of the.—This is one of the executive departments of the government. It was created in 1798. The Secretary of the Navy, its head, is a member of the President's Cabinet, by custom, not by law. He is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. His salary is $8,000. This department has charge of the vessels, navy yards, guns and all other matters pertaining to the navy. Moreover, the hydrographic office at which nautical charts with sailing directions are prepared for the use of seamen, is under the direction of the department, as is also the preparation of the Nautical Almanac, a work of incalculable use to seamen. The heads of the bureaus into which the department is divided are chosen from the officers of the navy above the rank of captain. They hold office four years, and draw the sea pay of their grade or rank, not less than commodore. These assistants are the chiefs of:

Bureau of Yards and Docks.
Bureau of Navigation.
Bureau of Ordnance.
Bureau of Provisions and Clothing.
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.
Bureau of Construction and Repair.
Bureau of Equipment and Becruiting.
Bureau of Steam Engineering.
Judge-Advocate General.
Commandant of the Marine Corps.

Below is given a list of all the Secretaries of ths Navy:

Name.

George Cabot

Benjamin Stoddert—

Hobert Smith

Jacob Crowninshield .

Paul Hamilton

William Jones

B. W. Crowninshield...

Smith Thompson

Samuel L. Southard....

John Branch

Levi Woodbury

Mahlon Dickerson—

James K. Paulding

George E. Badger

AbelP. Upshur

David Henshaw

Thomas W. Gilmer....

John Y.Mason

George Bancroft

John Y. Mason

William B. Preston....
William A.Graham...

John P. Kennedy

James C. Dobbin

Isaac Toucey

Gideon Welles

Adolph E. Borio

George M. Robeson ...
Richard W. Thompson

Nathan Goff

William L.Hunt

William E. Chandler ..

William C Whitney...

Benj. P. Tracy

State.

Massachusetts....

Maryland

Maryland

Massachusetts

South Carolina...
Pennsylvania

Massachusetts

New York

New Jersey

North Carolina..
New Hampshire .

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina. .

Virginia

Massachusetts

Virginia

Virginia

Massachusetts

Virginia

Virginia

North Carolina...

Maryland

North Carolina...
Connecticut ... .

Connecticut

Pennsylvania

New Jersey

Indiana

West Virginia

I Louisiana

New Hampshire .

New York

New York

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Navy of the United States.—During the Revolution this country had practically no navy, the largest force at any one time being twenty-rive vessels in 1776. After that year the navy dwindled, and by the end of the war but few vessels remained, and those were sold. Under the stress of threatened war with France and of actual war with the Barbary pirates (see Algerine War), vessels were constructed, but of these only a few were retained after the immediate necessity for their use had passed. The Federalists favored the establishment of a navy; the Republicans (Democrats) opposed it. The complications between this country and Great Britain, about the year 1812, caused fresh activity, and steps were taken to the formation of a navy. At that time we had but three first-class frigates, the Constitution, the President and the United States. In 1812, $200,000 annually for three years was appropriated for the construction of a navy, and its permanent establishment dates from that year. Thereafter it was recognized as a necessity by both parties. In 1816, $1,000,000 annually for eight years was appropriated. During the next year live oak and red cedar on government lands were ordered to be withdrawn from future sales and reserved for building war vessels, and agents to supervise and protect these woods were appointed, but in 1861, when this provision might have been of use, the necessary papers could not be found. The navy was not used actively in the Mexican War, and the outbreak of the Civil War found it again in a dilapidated condition. Moreover, at this time many officers resigned, and the government property in the Southern States was seized. At the outbreak of that war there were forty-two vessels in commission. Of these twenty-six employed steam as auxiliary motive power, thirteen were sailing vessels, and three were store-ships. Only twelve were of the home squadron, and of these only four were in Northern ports. The strides made under these discouraging conditions were enormous. Over 3,500 miles of coast were to be blockaded, besides vessels for the Mississippi River and the capture of privateers and cruisers were needed. Moreover, armor was just coming into use, and the government yards were in no condition to turn out modern vessels. In 1862 there were 427 vessels, carrying 3,268 guns; in 1863 there were 588 vessels, carrying 4,443 guns; in 1864 there were 671 vessels, carrying 4,610 guns. By December, 1866, the war being over, these had decreased to 115 vessels in active service. But this number has become still further reduced, as shown below. Large sums have annually been spent on the navy, but they have been used in repairing the old vessels, which, owing to the enormous changes in naval warfare in recent years, have become antiquated.

There were in the naval service in 1887 about 7,500 enlisted men and 750 boys. In 1883 forty-seven vessels were condemned and sold for a total sum of $384,753. Of late the absolute necessity of immediate action has been appreciated, if our navy is to be maintained even in a condition of moderate effectiveness. The following table shows.what has been done and what it is proposed to do. The double-turreted monitors, the cruisers Chicagc, Boston,, Atlanta, Dolphin, and gunboats numbers 1 and 2, were authorized prior to 1884. The armored cruisers numbers 1 and 2 were authorized in 1886, the cruisers Charleston and Baltimore in 1885, the Newark in 1886, the dynamite-boat in 1886, cruisers numbers 1 and 2, and gunboats numbers 3 and 4, in 1887, the first-class torpedo-boat in 1886. The secondclass torpedo-boat Stiletto was originally huilt and used as a yacht, but her extraordinary speed caused the government to purchase her.

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The pay of seamen is $258 per annum; or ordinary seamen $210. The pay of the retired list of naval officers is seventy-five per cent. of the sea pay of the rank held at the time of retirement. They are to be retired from active service at the age of sixty-two years, or may (except in certain grades) be retired after forty years of service regardless of age. The present retired list contains rear-admirals to the number of thirty-three. The United States Navy Yards are situated as follows:

1. Brooklyn Navy Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y.

2. Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Mass.

8. Qosport Navy Yard, near Norfolk, Virginia.

4. Kittery Navy Yard, opposite Portsmouth, N. H.

6. League Island Navy Yard, seven miles below Philadelphia, Pa.

6. Mare Island Navy Yard, near San Francisco, Cal.

7. New London Naval Station (unfinished), New London, Conn.

8. Pensacola Navy Yard, Pensacola, Fla.

9. Washington City Navy Yard, Washington, D. C. 10. Norfolk Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va.

There are naval stations at New London, Conn., Port Royal, S. C, and Key West, Fla., and a torpedo station at Newport. R. I.

The officers of the navy are trained for their profession at the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis (which see). The United States marine corps consists of 2,000 men, including 81 commissioned officers. Colonel Charles Hayward is commandant. The President is commander-in-chief of the navy (Constitution, Article 2, section 2). He acts through the Secretary of the Navy, who is at the head of the Navy Department. (See Navy Department of the.) The old vessels of the navy still in commission consist of seven steel and iron vessels and one torpedo boat—all steam vessels; twentythree wooden steam vessels, three wooden steam receiving ships, twelve iron and wooden steam tugs, one wooden sailing practice vessel, two wooden sailing school ships, one wooden sailing store ship, six wooden sailing receiving ships. On all these vessels the heavy ordnance consists entirely of old muzzle-loading guns. Within the last few years the necessity of increasing the strength and formidability of our navy has been recognized by the Government, and as a result the present, or what is known as the " New United States Navy," consists of the following armored and unarmored vessels: Chicago, 26 guns; Boston, 20 guns; Atlanta, 20 guns; Charleston, 22 guns; Baltimore, 24 guns; Newark, Philadelphia, San Francisco, 29 guns each; Maine, 32 guns; Texas, 30 guns; Cincinnati, Raleigh, 25. guns each; Cruiser, No. 9, Cruiser No. 11, Detroit, 20 guns oach; New York, 34 guns; Cruiser, No. 6, 38 guns;

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