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Monterey, 16 guns; Indiana, Massachusetts, Oregon, 40 guns each; Concord, Yorktown, Petral, Bennington, 15 guns each; Puritan, 20 guns; Miantonomah, Terror, Monadnock, 10 guns each, and a number of smaller vessels used for harbor defences, etc. It is the custom of foreign ships-of-war entering the harbor, or in passing in the vicinity of a fort, to hoist at the fore the flag of the country in whose waters they are and salute it; on the completion of the salute to the flag, a salute (of 21 guns) is returned as soon as possible by the nearest fort or battery; if there are several forts or batteries in sight, or within the radius of six miles, the principal fort returns the salute. The Presidential salute of twenty-one guns was adopted that a uniformity in national salutes might be maintained, it being the same number of guns as the royal salute of England. The reason why twenty-one should have been selected as the number of guns has been a source of search and guess, with no satisfactory results. Of the many surmises, the two carrying the most weight of opinion are: first, that twenty-one was the same number of years fixed by English law as the age of majority; the second, that seven was the original salute, and three times seven would signify one seven for each of the divisions, England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland. It is also asserted that the United States adopted this salute to signify to the mother country that her child had reached his majority, and was prepared, in law, to inherit the land; and to this end fired the "gun of 1776," the figures of which year added together equalled twenty-one. The salutes given in addition to the presidential salute are as follows: To the vice-president of the United States and the president of the Senate, 19 guns; members of cabinet, chief justice of U. S., speaker of House of Representatives, 17 guns; rear admiral, 13 guns; commodore, 11 guns; captain, 9 guns; to a sovereign or chief magistrate of any foreign country, 21 guns, to the heir apparent or consort of a reigning sovereign, 21 guns. A salute in accordanoa with their rank is also given to the viceroy, governorgeneral or governors of provinces belonging to foreign states, to ambassadors extraordinary and plenipotentiary, to envoys extraordinary and ministers plenipotentiary, to ministers resident accredited to the United States, to charges d'affairs in charge of missions in the United States, to consuls general accredited to the United States and to officers of foreign services. The salary of the principal officers of the United States navy is as follows: Rear-admiral, at sea $6,000, on shore duty $5,000, leave or waiting orders $4,000; commodore, at sea $5,000, on shore duty $4,000, leave or waiting orders $3,000; captain, at sea $4,500, on shore duty $3,500, leave or waiting orders $2,800; commander, at sea $3,500, on shore duty $3,000, leave or waiting orders $2,300; lieut.-commander, first four years, at sea $2,800, thereafter $3,000, on shore duty $2,400, thereafter $2,600, leave or waiting orders $2,000, thereafter $2,200; lieutenant, first five years, at sea $2,400, thereafter $2,600, on shore duty $2,000, thereafter $2,200, leave or waiting orders $1,600, thereafter $1,800; lieutenant, junior grade, first five years, at sea $1,800, thereafter $2,000, on shore duty $1,500, thereafter $1,700, leave or waiting orders $1,200, thereafter $1,400; ensign, first five years, at sea $1,200.

Nebraska was originally a part of the Louisiana purchase. (See Annexations I.; Territories.) In 1854 it was organized as a separate territory, including Montana, Dakota, Wyoming and part of Colorado, as these now exist. On March 1, 1867, the President's proclamation, following an act of Congress, declared it to be a State. The capital is Lincoln. The population in 1880 was 452,402, and in the last census, 1890, 1,058,910. Nebraska has three seats in the House of Representatives and five electoral votes. It is Republican in politics. Its name is of Indian origin, and is supposed to mean "shallow water." (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Neutrality is the abstention from engaging in a war carried on between other nations and the preservation of complete impartiality toward all the belligerents. The territory of the neutral is inviolable, but if permission to use it is granted to cne belligerent it must be granted to alL War vessels with their prizes may enter neutral ports unless forbidden; by the laws of the United States prizes are not admitted to our ports. The right of belligerents to raise forces in a neutral country, if

Granted to one, must be granted to all; the United tates permits this to none. It is practically recognized at present that a neutral flag protects both vessel and cargo, except articles contraband of war, and that neutral goods, with the same exception, are protected even on a belligerent vessel. Neutral vessels must be provided with proper papers and must submit to reasonable examination. (See Blockade; Contraband of War.) The persons and property of belligerents are protected while in neutral jurisdiction. War ships of belligerentmust preserve peace with each other while in neutral harbors, or within a marine league of a neutral coast. If a war-ship leaves a neutral port, war-ships of its enemy are not permitted to leave till a day later; this is called the "twenty-four hour rule." The person and property of a neutral are inviolable even when among belligerents, so long as he abstains from participating in hostilities.

Nevada was originally a part of Mexico and was ceded to us by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. (See Annexations IV.) It was organized as a separate Territory in 1861, and was admitted to the Union on October 31, 1864, by the President's proclamation, in accordance with an act of Congress. The capital is Carson City. The population in 1880 was 62,266 and in the last census (1890) 45,761. Nevada has one representative in Congress and three electoral votes. In 1872 and 1880 the vote for President was Democratic and in 1876 and 1884 Republican. Its name is of Spanish origin and means "snow covered." Popularly it is known as the Sage Hen State. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

New Breeches.—A nickname applied to the Constitution while it was before the people for ratification. New England Emigrant Aid Company, was a

corporation chartered by the Massachusatts legislature in 1855, to aid free State emigration to Kansas, in which region the struggle between the free State and the slave parties was then at its height. (See Border War.)

New Hampshire was one of the original States of the Union. The capital is Concord. The population in 1880 was 346,991, and in the last census (1890) 376,530. New Hampshire lias two representatives in Congress and four electoral votes. It is considered a Republican State. It was named for Hampshire County in England, and is known familiarly as the Granite State, from its extensive granite quarries. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

New Jersey was one of the original States of the Union. The capital is Trenton. The population in 1880 was 1,131,116, and in the last census (1890) 1,444,933. New Jersey is entitled to seven seats in the House of Representatives and nine electoral votes. It may be considered a Democratic State, though somewhat doubtful. Throughout and since the Civil War, except in 1872, the Democratic electors have been chosen. It was named for the Island of Jersey, one of the Channel Islands. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

New Mexico was organized as a Territory of the United States by Act of September 9, 1850, from territory ceded by Mexico. (See Annexations IV.) In 1854 the region acquired by the Gadsden purchase (see Annexations V.) was added to New Mexico, which then included Arizona and parts of Nevada and Colorado, as these now exist. A few years later the northwestern and northeastern corners were given to Nevada and Colorado, respectively, and in 1863 the western half was formed into the Territory of Arizona. Santa Fe is the capital. The population in 1880 was 119,565 and in the last census (1890) 153,593. It would probably have been made a State before this, but for the fear that its semi-Mexican population would practically establish a State church. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

New Roof.—A nickname applied to the Constitution while it was before the people for ratification.

New York was one of the original States of the Union. The capital is Albany. The population in 1880 was 5,082,871, and in the last census (1890) 5,997,853. New York has thirty-four seats in the House of Representatives and thirty-six electoral votes. It is a doubtful State, and the most important one in national politics. In 1872 and 1880 it was carried for the Republican national candidates, and in 1876 and 1884 by the Democratic. It was named in honor of the Duke of York, one of its colonial governors. Popularly it is known as the Empire State, from its importance, and as the Excelsior State, from the motto on its coat of arms. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Nez Perce War. (See Indian Wars.)

Nicholas Biddle's United States Bank.—Under this name the second United States Bank was known, after it was re-chartered by the State of Pennsylvania in 1836. The bank paid the State $2,000,000 for the charter. Nicholas Biddle, the president claimed for the bank a large surplus after paying for the charter. The bank failed in 1841. In 1838 the stock was quoted as high as 125; in 1841 it dropped to

Night-Soilers.—A derisive name applied by the Hunkers to those members of the Democratic party that called themselves Free-Soilers. (See Free-Soil Party.)

Noblest Roman of them All.—This phrase occurs in Shakespeare's tragedy of Julius Caesar s and is applied to Brutus. Allen G. Thurman, of Ohio, is sometimes popularly so-called.

No Man's Land. (See Cimarron.)

Nominating Conventions.—When the congressional caucus came to an end the present system of nominating conventions sprang up. In this country the earliest political influences were wielded by groups of leaders. Then followed the caucus in the Legislature for the nomination of State officers, and the congressional caucus (which see) to nominate the President. The present system had its origin in the State of New York, where it was suggested by the Tammany Society as early as 1813. The caucuses of the Legislatures had from time

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