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levy a j)oll tax in proportion to the census, but this power has never been exercised. The States, however, have very generally levied such taxes. In 1860 it was employed by twenty-seven of the States and Territories. It is not now so common, and some of the State Constitutions forbid it. In some States, as in Massachusetts, its payment is a necessary pre-requisite for voting. Where it is employed it is not uncommon to except certain classes, as ministers, from its payment.
Pond Tax Law. (See Prohibition.)
Poor Man's Dollar.—The silver dollar is so-called by those favoring its compulsory coinage. (See Silver Question.)
Poor Richard.—In 1732 Benjamin Franklin began the publication of "Poor Richard's Almanac." It has become renowned by reason of the homely but striking maxims it contained.
Popular Sovereignty.—This name was applied to the doctrine that the principle of slavery "should be kept out of the national Legislature, and left to the people of the Confederacy in their respective local governments." It was first stated as above by Lewis Cass in 1847. Behind this doctrine the Northern Democrats sought refuge, both from the Wilmot Proviso and from the Southern demands for active measures in behalf of slavery. On the other hand, Calhoun maintained that a man's right to his property, even though it be in slaves, must everywhere be maintained, so that a man could take his slave into any territory regardless of the wishes of the inhabitants thereof. Calhoun nicknamed the doctrine "squatter" sovereignty. Douglas, its chief supporter, maintained that it was the basis of the compromise of 1850, and in the Kansas-Nebraska Bill another attempt to apply it was made. But when it became evident that this doctrine meant the admission of all future Territories as free, the interpretation was strained so as to bring it within Calhoun's declarations, on the ground that a Territory could not manifest its intentions on the subject until it was ready to be admitted as a State, in other words, not through its Territorial government. A disagreement on this subject led to the withdrawal of a part of the Democratic national convention which nominated Douglas in 1860.
Population of the United States.—The table on page 399 gives the population of the United States as shown by the decennial census which the Constitution provides for (Article 1, section 2, clause 3). Indians not taxed are excluded, as are also the whole populations of Alaska and Indian Territory, which have not yet been fully organized. The first were estimated in 1881 at 245,000; the second, in 1880, at 30,178; and the third, in 1880, at 70,000. The total population, actual and estimated, in 1880 was about 50,500,000. _ The totals of the last three censuses include a few Chinese, Japanese and civilized or taxed Indians, who together numbered 1,054 in 1880.
According to the census of 1890 the total population of the United States was 62,622,250.
The following table shows the population of the various States and Territories for 1890:
States And Territories.
1890. States And Territories.
District of Columbia 230,:
Population and Congressional Representation.—Under the act to apportion representatives in Congress among the States under the Federal ceusus of population in 1890, which passed Congress and was approved February 7, 1891, the whole number of representees after March 4, 1893, will be 356. In accordance with the act, the several States will be represented in the lower House of the Ffty-third Congress and will be entitled to electoral votes as follows: Alabama, 9 representatives and 11 electoral votes; Arkansas, 6 representatives and 8 electoral votes; California, 7 representatives and 9 electoral votes ; Colorado, 2 representatives and 4 electoral votes; Connecticut, 4 representatives and 6 electoral votes; Delaware, 1 representative and 3 electoral votes; Florida, 2 representives and 4 electoral votes; Georgia, 11 representatives and 13 electoral votes; Idaho, 1 representative and 3 electoral votes; Illinois, 22 representatives and 24 electoral votes; Indiana, 13 representatives and 15 electoral votes; Iowa, 11 representatives and 13 electoral votes ; Kansas, 8 representatives and 10 electoral votes; Kentucky, 11 representatives and 13 electoral votes; Louisiana, 6 representatives and 8 electoral votes; Maine, 4 representatives and 6 electoral votes; Maryland, 6 representatives and 8 electoral votes; Massachusetts, 13 representatives and 15 electoral votes; Michigan, 12 representatives and 14 electoral votes; Minnesota, 7 representatives and 9 electoral votes; Mississippi, 7 representatives and 9 electoral votes; Missouri, 15 representatives and 17 electoral votes; Montana, 1 representative and 3 electoral votes; Nebraska, 6 representatives and 8 electoral votes; Nevada, 1 representative and 3 electoral votes; New Hampshire, 2 representatives and 4 electoral votes; New Jersey, 8 representatives and 10 electoral votes; New York, 34 representatives and 36 electoral votes; North Carolina, 9 representatives and 11 electoral votes; North Dakota, 1 representative and 3 electoral votes, Ohio, 21 representatives and 22 electoral votes; Oregon, 2 representatives and 4 electoral votes; Pennsylvania; 30 representatives and 32 electoral votes; Rhode Island, 2 representatives and 4 electoral votes; South Carolina, 7 representatives and 9 electoral votes; South Dakota, 2 representatives and 4 electoral votes; Tennessee, 10 representatives and 12 electoral votes; Texas, 13 representatives and 15 electoral votes; Vermont, 2 representatives and 4 electoral votes; Virginia, 10 representatives and 12 electoral votes; Washington, 2 representatives and 4 electoral votes; West Virginia, 4 representatives and 6 electoral votes; Wisconsin, 10 representatives and 12 electoral votes; Wyoming, 1 representative and 3 electoral votes. By this apportionment the membership of the House of Representatives will be increased from 332 to 356, and 223 electoral votes will be necessary for a choice. When a State fails to re-district before the election following the re-apportionment, the additional members of the House from that State are elected by the entire State instead of by districts, and such members are known as Congressmen at Large.
Popular Names of Cities.—The nicknames given to the various prominent cities in the United States are as follows: Brooklyn, N. Y., City of Churches; Boston, Hub of the Universe; Baltimore, Monumental City; Buffalo, Queen City of the -Lakes; Chicago, Garden City; Cincinnati, Queen City; Cleveland, Forest City; Detroit, City of the Straits; Hannibal, Bluff City; Indianapolis, Railroad City; Keokuk, Gate City; Louisville, Falls City; Lowell, City of Spindles; New York, Gotham, Empire City; New Orleans, Crescent City; Nashville, City of Rocks; New Haven, City of Elms; Philadelphia, Quaker City, City of Brotherly Love; Pittsburg, Iron City; Portland, Me., Forest City; Rochester, Flour City; St. Louis, Mound City; Springfield, 111., Flower City ; Washington, D. C, City of Magnificent Distances.
Porcelaine Currency—or more properly Wampum —was a kind of money used originally by the Indians and later adopted by the English, Dutch and French colonists. It consisted of coins or beads made from the black or purple eye of the common hard shell clam and from the stem of the shell of the periwinkle. Through the center of the coin or bead, a small hole was drilled and they were then strung on threads or strings made from the sinews of deer, or else woven into various kinds of belts. The English, French and Dutch colonists adopted wampum as a medium of exchange, the New Netherlands colony records 1662 note " kept in wampum and beaver skins." Massachusetts colony in 1687 ordered it should pass "six a penny" for any sum under twelve pence; Connecticut and New Haven in 1640 adopted it also, a fair fathom of purple wampum being worth ten shillings, and one fathom of white wampum five shillings. The records of New Amsterdam (New York city) of 1641 authorizes " four beads of good black well-strung wampum or eight of the white" to be reckoned the value of one stuyver, a Dutch coin worth about one cent. Wampum was called by the Dutch, Zewant.
Pork.—A term used in politics to designate the spoils of legislation. (See Log Rolling).
Postal Currency.—This currency was the invention of General Spinner, who represented the Syracuse district of NewYork in Congress and was appointed Treasurer of the United States by President Lincoln. During the war and until the resumption of specie payment there was a great scarcity of change. Spinner being appealed to from all quarters to take some measure to supply the demand for small change, silver having vanished, was powerless, as he had no law under which be could act. In his dilemma he thought of the postage stamp, and sent down to the post-office department and purchased a quantity of stamps. He then ordered a package of the paper upon which Government securities are printed, which he cut into various sizes. On these pieces he pasted stamps to represent different amounts, thus initiating a substitute for fractional silver. This was not, however, a Government transaction in any sense; it could not be. The General distributed his improvised currency among the clerks of Vhe department, and finally through imitation it be