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on bi-metallism, to indicate a single standard of value; that is, gold alone or silver alone. Double standard means the concurrent use of both metals as standards. (See Bi-Metallism.)

Sinking; Fund is a fund provided for the payment of a debt or obligation, and is formed by successively setting apart smaller amounts for this purpose. Even under the confederation an attempt was made by Alexander Hamilton to establish a sinking fund for the national debt; it was unsuccessful. The first sinking fund under the government of the United States was created by Act of August 2, 1790. The present sinking fund to retire the national debt was established by Act of February 25, 1862: as subsequently modified it sets apart all duties on imported goods as a special fund, first, for the payment of interest on the public debt, and second, for the purchase every year of one per cent. of the national debt; bonds so redeemed are to be cancelled and deducted from the outstanding indebtedness of the government; but in addition to the one per cent. thus redeemed there is to be purchased annually an amount of government bonds equal to the annual interest on bonds previously bought for the sinking fund. The sinking fund is thus, as far as interest is concerned, in the position of any other holder of the government's obligations, receiving interest on all the bonds that have been purchased for its account, only the bonds belonging to it nave been cancelled and the debt is considered reduced by that amount. The Act of April 17, 1876, provides that fractional currency redeemed by the Treasury shall constitute a part of the sinking fund. The estimated sinking fund requirement for the year ending July 1, 1892, is $44,006,111. The operations of this fund will provide for the payment of the entire national debt by the date of maturity of the government bonds having longest still to run, viz.: the four per cent. bonds due in 1907.

Sinophobist, meaning literally, a hater of the Chinese, is a term sometimes applied to those who have clamored for a restriction of Chinese immigration to this country.

Sioux War. (See Indian Wars.)
Six Companies. (See Chinese Question.)
Slavery.—In 1620 the first cargo of negro slaves was

tion in that colony, as it was, indeed, in all of the thirteen colonies, except Georgia. Georgia was formed by Oglethorpe in 1732, and as long as he was in control, until 1752 (when its charter was surrendered to the crown), slavery was prohibited. The physical character of the Northern colonies, requiring as it does, the application to the soil of intellect as well as of labor, in order to render it productive, was not calculated to make slave labor profitable, but none of the colonies had at first any objections to slavery on moral grounds. After the Revolutian statesmen, both North and South, deplored its introduction by their forefathers and regarded it as a necessary evil. The provisions in the Constitution, leaving the slave-trade unhampered for twenty years, and requiring the return of fugitive slaves, were won from the convention only by the importunity of South Carolina and Georgia. The invention of the cotton-gin rendered the labor of slaves vastly more profitable. This is seen when we state that the exports of cotton in 1792 were 138,328 pounds, and in 1795, 6,276,300 pounds, the cotton-gin having been invented in 1793. This event, opening prospects of unlimited profit by the employment of slaves, increased the Southern sentiment in favor of slavery. In the North it was dying a natural death. Yet, as late as 1826, John Randolph, of Virginia, said in the House: "I envy neither the head nor the heart of that man, .... who rises here to defend slavery upon principle." And the Missouri Compromise distinctly recognized the power of Congress to exclude slavery from Territories. In the House the anti-slave power was in control, but the Senate, containing two Senators from every State, regardless of population, was always in a position to defeat restrictive measures. The South, perceiving this advantage, steadily refused admission to free States, without the admission at the same time of a corresponding number of slave States. The slave power, thus forced to an ex tension of slave territory, began to assert the "essential righteousness " of slavery, and then to deny the power of Congress to restrict it in the Territories. The Kansas-Nebraska Bill accomplished this latter purpose, thus annulling the Missouri Compromise. As soon as it became evident that Kansas would become a free State, the doctrine was further elaborated, and it was asserted to be the duty of Congress to protect slavery. The election of a Republican President in 1860 gave occasion for the one remaining step, secession. Thus was the Civil War begun, and in that struggle slavery perished.

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Smelling: Committee—This vigorous phrase is used by the machine politicians to denote a legislative commitee of inquiry, whose investigation it is feared will result in personal damage to them.

Snuff Takers. (See Conscience Whigs.)

Soap.—A political slang term for money; usually applied to money corruptly used.

Social Bands.—A name applied to societies organized in Missouri, after the passage of the KansasNebraska Bill, for the purpose of taking "possession of Kansas on behalf of slavery."

Softs, or Soft-shells. (See Barnburners.)

Soldiers' Home.—This home is intended for aged or disabled soldiers of the regular army of the United States. It is situated at Washington, D. C, occupying a beautiful site outside the city limits, was established in 1851 with the money raised by a levy on the City of Mexico during the Mexican War, and is supported by a regular tax on each soldier of the army. A home for volunteer soldiers of the Civil War is situated at Dayton, Ohio, with branches at Augusta, Maine, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Hampton, Virginia.

Solid South.—Since the Civil War the sympathy of Southern whites has, until now, uniformly been with the Democratic party, and since the withdrawal of Union troops at the South, during Hayes' administration, the Southern States have all voted Democratic, or in the current phrase, have gone solidly Democratic. Hence the term Solid South; that is, the South solidly Democratic. There are signs that the supremacy of the solid South will soon be broken. That event, when it occurs, will be the final step in the series of reconciliations between North and South.

Sons of '76. (See American Party.)

Sons of Liberty. (See American Anights.)

Sons of the South.—A name applied to societies organized in Missouri after the passage of the KansasNebraska Bill, for the purpose 01 taking "possession of Kansas on behalf of slavery.'"

Sore-head is a person whose ambition is disappointed, not by defeat suffered at the hands of antagonists, but by failure of his party to honor him, and who does not accept the result with good grace. A sore-head may go to the extent of bolting his party's convention (see Bolters), or he may simply sulk for a time and finally recover his good humor. A kicker (which see) is a general term for a dissatisfied adherent. A sore-head is a kicker with a personal grievance.

South Americans.—This term was used before the Civil War to designate the Southern members of the American or Know-Nothing party. Their only desire was to prevent all agitation on the subject of slavery whether for or against the institution.

South Carolina was one of the original States of the Union. On December 20, 1860, a State convention passed an ordinance of secession and led all the Southern States into the Confederacy. By Act of June 25, 1868, South Carolina was re-admitted to the Union. The capital is Columbia. The population in 1880 was 995,577, and in the last census (1890) 1,151,149. South Carolina has seven seats in the House of Representatives and nine electoral votes. It is a reliably Democratic State at present in national elections. The two Carolinas were named after Charles I., of England (in Latin Carolus). Popularly it is called the Palmetto State. (See Electoral Commission; Governors; Legislatures.)

Southern Confederacy. (See Confederate States.)

Southwest Territory. (See Territories.)
Speaker of the House of Representatives.—The

title of the presiding officer of the House of Representatives (which see). He is elected by the members of that body. Below is given a list of the Speakers of the House of Representatives:

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P. A. Muhlenburg...
Jonathan Trumbull.
F. A. Muhlenburg...
Jonathan Dayton...
Theodore Sedgwick.

Nathaniel Macon

Joseph B. Varnum..

Henry Clay

Langdon Cheves. ..

Henry Clay

John VV. Taylor

Philip P. Barbour...

Henry Clay

John W. Taylor .. ..
Andrew Stevenson..

John Bell

James K. Polk

R. M. T. Hunter

John White

John W. Jones .

John W. Davis

Robert C. Winthrop.

Howell Cobb

Linn Boyd

Nathaniel P. Banks.

James L. Orr

William Pennington
Galusha A. Grow —

Schuyler Colfax

James G. Blaine

Michael C. Kerr

Samuel J. Randall...

John W. Keifer

John G. Carlisle

.Thomas B. Reed
George F.Crisp..

State.

Pennsylvania.
Connecticut.
Pennsylvania.
New Jersey.
Massachusetts
North Carolina.
Massachusetts.
Kentucky.
South Carolina.
Kentucky.
New York.
Virginia.
Kentucky.
New York.
Virginia.
Tennessee.
Tennessee.
Virginia.
Kentucky.
Virginia.
Indiana.
Massachusetts.
Georgia.
Kentucky.
Massachusetts.
South Carolina.
New Jersey.
Pennsylvania.
Indiana.
Maine.
Indiana-
Pennsylvania.
Ohio.

Kentucky.
Maine

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Specie Circular.—Between 1830 and 1836 prosperity largely increased in the United States. Considerable artificial stimulus was afforded by the deposit of government funds in the State banks. The sales of government lands in 1830 yielded $2,329,356.14; in 1836, $24,877,179.86. New banks, with but little capital, sprung up everywhere and their circulating notes were rapidly

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