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method has not yet entirely ceased, but the growth of the industrial spirit among nations, whereby the property subject to destruction in war has been vastly augmented and peaceful habits have been cultivated, and the growth of a spirit of equity in dealing with other nations has ceased the settlement of many disputes in modern times by arbitration instead of by war. The contesting nations select some arbitrator, or arbitrators, to whom the disputed point is referred and whose decision is to be final, or subject to the approval of each, according to the terms of the submission. The submission is sometimes the result of a treaty, and sometimes it merely grows out of state correspondence, and is intended to clear the atmosphere in international discussions by the aid of an impartial opinion. The situation of the United States, remote from most foreign nations, her lack of a large navy and standing army, the peaceful habits of her people and the conciliatory policy of her government from the outset, have inclined her frequently in the history of her foreign relations to submit disputes to arbitration. The Treaty of Washington was from this point of view a remarkable one, both because of the importance of its subjects and the success attending the reference of them to arbitration, and its example has not been without its effect in increasing respect both for the United States and the method of arbitration among other nations.
Arctic Expeditions, American.—The first American expedition to the Arctic regions was made in 1850, when the ships Advance and Rescue started in search of the lost explorer Sir John Franklin and his party. In October of the following year, after an absence of nineteen months, they returned, having discovered only supposed traces of the objects of their search, and leaving their actual fate in entire uncertainty. The second American expedition, having for its object the same humane purpose, was due in a great measure to Dr. Kane, and was made under the auspices of the Navy Department, the Smithsonian Institute, the Geographical Society of New York, the American Philosophical Society, and other scientific associations. This expedition was also unsuccessful so far as discovering any information regarding the fate of Franklin. During 1864-'69, the Monticello, Commander Charles F. Hall, reached King William's Land, and in 1871, the Polaris reached latitude 82 degrees 16 minutes north. The next expedition of particular importance was that of the Jeannette, Commander Lieutenant De Long, 1879–281. This unfortunate vessel was crushed June 13, 1881, in latitude 77 degrees 14 minutes 57 seconds north. In 1880 the Corwin, Commander Captain C. L. Hooper, who had sailed for the relief of the Jeannette, reached Wrangell Land; and in the same year the Rodgers, Commander Lieutenant R. M. Berry, reached latitude 73 degrees 28 minutes north. The Greely expedition of 1881 reached the highest latitude yet attained-83 degrees 24 1-2 minutes north.
Arbor Day. The first suggestion of tree planting under the direction of state authority was made by B. G. Northrop, then Secretary of the Connecticut Board of Education, about 1865, in an official state report. In 1876 this same gentleman endeavored to stimulate “centennial tree planting” by the offer of prizes to the children of Connecticut. But the idea of setting apart a day for the work had originated with ex-Governor J. Sterling Morton, of Nebraska, who about 1872 induced the Governor of that state to issue a proclamation appointing a day for the planting of trees throughout the state. A year or two later the day was made a legal holiday by enactment of the Legislature, and provision was made for awarding premiums to those who put out the most trees in it. It is said that nearly 700,000,000 Arbor Day trees are now in thriving condition on the prairie tracts of the state.
The example of Nebraska was soon followed by Kansas, and with grand results. Arbor Day in Minnesota, first observed in 1876, resulted, it is said, in planting over a million and a half of trees. In Michigan the Arbor Day law was passed in 1881, and in Ohio in 1882. Since then Arbor day has been observed in Colorado, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Indiana, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Florida, Alabama, Missouri, California, Kentucky, Maine and Georgia. In several other states its observance has been secured by the recommendation of the Grange, the Grand Army of the Republic, or by State agricultural societies. While at the outset economic tree-planting was the primary aim, the adornment of home and school grounds soon followed. On the first Ohio Arbor Day, the children of Cincinnati joined in an attractive celebration, in the form of planting memorial trees and dedicating them to authors, statesmen, and other distinguished citizens. B. G. Northrop says, concerning the value of the observance of Arbor Day: “While forests should not be planted on our rich arable lands, there are in New England and all the Atlantic states large areas of barrens worthless for field
inay be profitably devoted to wood-growing. The feasibility of reclaiming our most sterile wastes is proved by many facts both at home and abroad. Our Atlantic sand plains were once covered with forests and can be reforested. Over 10,000 acres on Cape Cod, which thirty years ago were barren, sandy plains, are now covered with thriving planted forests."
Aristocrats.-A name applied by the Republicans to a section of the Federalists in 1796. Also called the British Party:
Arizona is a Territory of the United States. It originally formed parts of the Mexican cession and the Gadsden purchase. (See Annexations IV and V.) It was separated from New Mexico and organized by Act of February 24, 1863. Phonix is the capital. The population in 1880 was 40,440 and in the last census (1890) 59,602. (See Governors; Legislatures.)
Area of the United States. The area of the various territories which have been acquired by the United States from time to time is given under Annexations. The areas of the various States and Territories and of the United States are given in the following table, the figures including the gross land and water
as given in the census of 1890, except as to Alaska, the extent of which is given as estimated by the special agent for that census:
GROSS AREA IN STATES AND TERRITORIES.
SQUARE MILES. Alabama..
52,250 Alaska Territory........
............................................. 577,390 Arizona.
................................................ 113,020 Arkansas
............ 158,360 Colorado.
103,925 Connecticut......... ........................................
4,990 Dakota, North...................................
70,775 Dakota, South.
2,050 District of Columbia..
36,350 Indian Territory...
110,700 New Hampshire.
9,305 New Jersey.
7,815 New Mexico
122,580 New York......
49,170 North Carolina
52, 250 Ohio..
45,215 Rhode Island.
1,250 South Carolina...
69,180 West Virginia...
97,890 Oklahama Territory.
39,030 Delaware Bay..
620 Rariton Bay and Lower New York Bay.
100 Total United States..
Arkansas.—The State of Arkansas was originally a portion of the Louisiana purchase. (See Annexations 1.) It was separated as Arkansaw Territory from Missouri in 1819, and was admitted to the Union on June 15, 1836. On May 6, 1861, a convention passed an ordinance of secession, and the State was re-admitted to the Union June 22, 1868. The capital is Little Rock. The population in 1880 was 802,525, and in the last 1890, census 1,128,179. Arkansas sends five members to the House of Representatives and has seven electoral votes; it is a Democratic State. In 1881 the Legislature declared the pronunciation of its name to be Ar-kan-saw. The name is of Indian origin and has no known meaning. Arkansas is popularly known as the Bear State, in allusion to the figures on the coat of arms of Missouri, of which it was once a part. (See Governors; Legislatures.)
Army of the United States.—On January 1, 1892, the army contained:
OFFICERS. 10 Cavalry regiments..
432 5 Artillery regiments.
282 25 Infantry regiments.............
6,050 3,675 12,125 3,370
6,480 3,957 13,002 3,949
The last division includes the engineer service, recruiting parties, ordnance department, hospital service, Indian scouts, West Point, signal detachments and general service.
The army is commanded by three major-generals, and six brigadier-generals. The pay of the officers is as follows:
PAY DURING FIRST 5 YEARS
of Service. Major-General..
2,500 Captain, mounted.
2,000 Captain, not mounted.
1,800 First Lieutenant, mounted.
1,600 First Lieutenant, not mounted..
1,500 Second Lieutenant...
Pay. 10,500 7,700 4,500 4,000 3,500 2,800 2,520 2,240 2,100 1,960