Baltimore, by the British during the War of 1812. Francis Scott Key, a lawyer, of Frederick, Maryland, had gone on board the British flag-ship to solicit the release of a friend who had been carried on board a prisoner. The British, as they were on the point of attacking Fort McHenry, detained Key, and he as well as his friend and another American were transferred to another vessel lying near. There they watched the fight and here during the bombardment did Key write the song.

States, Familiar Names of.—Alabama .

Arkansas—Bear State. California—Golden State. Colorado—Centennial State. Connecticut—Nutmeg State, Wooden Nutmeg State, Free Stone State, Land of Steady Habits. Delaware—Diamond State, Blue Hen State. •Florida—Peninsula State. Georgia—Empire State of the South. Illinois—Prairie State, Sucker State. Indiana—Hoosier State. Iowa—Hawkeye State. Kansas—Garden State, Garden of the West. Kentucky— Corn Cracker State. Louisiana—Creole State, Pelican State. Maine—Pine Tree State, Lumber State. Maryland . Massachusetts—Old Colony, Bay State,

Old Bay State. Michigan—Wolverine State, Lake State. Minnesota—Gopher State. Mississippi—Bayou State. Missouri — Pennsylvania of the West. Nebraska . Nevada—Sage Hen State. New

Hampshire — Granite State. New Jersey .

New York — Empire State, Excelsior State. North Carolina—Tar State, Turpentine State, Old North State.

Ohio—Buckeye State. Oregon . Pennsylvania

—Keystone State. Rhode Island—Little Rhody or Rhoda. South Carolina—Palmetto State. Tennessee— Big Bend State. Texas—Lone Star State. Vermont— Green Mountain State. Virginia — Old Dominion, Mother of Presidents, Mother of States. West Virginia—Pan Handle State. Wisconsin—Badger State.

State Sovereignty.—Nullification is the setting aside and ignoring of a national law by a State. Strictly speaking, "State Sovereignty" is the doctrine that the States, at the formation of the Union, delegated a portion of their sovereignty to the national government, reserving the right to revoke the agency and to resume the exercise of all the elements of sovereignty at any time by seceding. "State rights" is the doctrine that every State is sovereign within the limits of its own sphere of action, made so by the declared will of the nation as expressed in the Constitution; and that the will of the nation, appropriately manifested, as provided in the Constitution, may change that sphere. In the Constitution, the rights of the national government are distinctly stated; the rights of the State are limited only by the expressly declared national right. Previous to the Civil War the term "State rights" was used to designate the idea of "State sovereignty," and misuse has raised a prejudice in many minds even against the legitimate theory of "State rights" brought forward since that event. The arguments against "State sovereignty" may be summarized as follows: The colonies did not fight each for its own independence, but each for the independence of all, as is shown by their joint action throughout, in military as well as civil matters. The sovereignty acquired in that struggle was never individually exercised, but all remained under the national sovereignty raised by the common fight for liberty. All the elements and insignia of sovereignty were vested in the national government, as the power to declare war and peace and to coin money, and moreover the power to amend the Constitution, except in a very few particulars, was given to three-fourths of the States, and on the theory of State sovereignty this would imply the selfcontradictory condition of a sovereign State voluntarily exposing itself to changes in its government without its consent to the change. It may be maintained that secession would afford the needed relief; but if this had been the intention, the consent of all the States to an amendment would have been required, since it must be presumed that the union was intended to endure. The doctrine of "State sovereignty" was put forward at various times. (See Hartford Convention; Nullification.) Soon after the nullification troubles it became the ally of slavery, and the result of the Civil War put it to rest forever. State sovereignty and secession finally disposed of, the theory of States rights as above outlined could be developed. The danger of extreme particularism had been avoided; extreme centralization during the exercise of war powers by the President and Congress was inevitable. The Supreme Court holds the balance, and its adjudication has, since the war, laid down the relations of the States and the national government as above.

Step-Father of His Country.—A nickname applied to Washington by venomous opponents during his presidency.

Stephens, Alexander H., was born in Wilkes (now Taliaferro) County, Georgia, February 11, 1812, and died at Atlanta, Georgia, March 4, 1883. He was a lawyer and a graduate of the University of Georgia. He served in the State Legislature and in Congress (from 1843 to 1859) as a Whig. When that party ceased to exist he became a Democrat, but opposed secession; when his State had actually seceded he joined it, however. He became Vice-President of the Confederacy. In 1877 he again went to Congress, leaving the House to become Governor of his State in 1882.

Stevens, Thaddeus, was born at Peacham, Vermont, April 4, 1792, and died at Washington, August 11, 1868. He was graduated at Dartmouth, and then practiced law in Pennsylvania. He served in the State Legislature, and was sent to Congress in 1849, where he served until 1853, and again from 1859 to 1868. He was originally a Whig, subsequently joining the Republicans. After the war he took a prominent part in Reconstruction. (See that title and Broad Seal War.)

Still Hunt.—When a politician quietly works to secure support for himself without openly avowing his candidacy he is said to be engaged in a Still Hunt.

Straw Bail.—Bail is security given for the appearance of an offender when called for trial. This is usually in the form of a bond by a real-estate owner, the bond to be forfeited on the non-appearance of the accused. When bail bonds are given by men who pretend to possess the necessary qualifications while in reality they do not, the bail is called Straw Bail.

Strict Construction. (See Construction of the Constitution. )

Strikers.—In politics this term is applied to men that seek corruptly to influence legislation. (See Lobby.) Whether the striker has any real power to do this or not is immaterial; what is important to him is, that those desiring legislation influenced may think so, and intrust to him money intended for that purpose. The term is also applied to legislators that introduce or support bills obnoxious to particular interests (usually to some corporation), for the purpose of being bought off by the interests thus threatened. This is a species of political blackmail.

Strong Government Whigs were the members of that faction of the American Whigs that favored the establishment of a strong central government. Opposed to them were the Particularists.

Stuffing The Ballot-Box. (See Ballot-Box Stuffing.)

Stump.—In the early days of this country political orators traveled from town to town, usually addressing crowds in the open air from the most convenient place, frequently the stump of a tree. From this arose the practice of calling a political harangue a stump-speech; the derivation of "stumping the State" and "stumpspeakers" is obvious.

Submission Men.—Those that opposed the War of 1812, and desired peace at any price, were called "submission men."

Subsidies, are direct pecuniary encouragement given by the government to private enterprises, especially for purposes of transportation. Our protective system of import duties is in the nature of an indirect bounty or subsidy to domestic manufacturers. (See Protection; Tariff Laws of the United States.) Railroads and steamship companies have usually been the recipients of direct aid from the government, but subsidies to railroads have generally taken the forms of land grants. For grants to railroads see Land Grants; Pacific Railroads. No grants have been made for the last fifteen years. The reasons urged in support of these subsidies were that railroads were thus established much sooner than they otherwise could have been, and the country was developed, while the government lost nothing because the lands it retained were greatly enhanced in value. There is no doubt that much of our national development is due to our extensive railroads, and that this has been greatly encouraged by national aid; but, on the other hand, the dangers of railroad speculation followed, and the government interests were not sufficiently protected. In 1845, subsidies to steamship lines, in the form of payments for carrying the mails, were commenced, and a line was established from New York to Bremen, and subsequently to Havre and Bremen; the subsidy was $350,000 annually. In 1847 another act was passed, under which subsidies were paid to the Collins line to Liverpool, the George Law line to Aspinwall, and the Pacific Mail Steamship Company running from Panama to Oregon. In 1851 and 1852 the subsidies to the Pacific Mail and the Collins lines, respectively, were largely increased. In 1852 the total amount of subsidies for the foreign mail services was $1,946,686. About 1858 most of these subsidies were withdrawn. In 1864 a subsidy was authorized for mail service to Brazil, and in 1865 a contract for ten years was made with the United States and Brazil Steamship Company at $150,000 per annum. The same year saw a contract for monthly mail service to China with the Pacific Mail Company at an annual subsidy of $500,000. In 1872 an additional amount of $500,000 was offered to the same company for a semi-monthly service, but it was found impossible to construct the vessels as provided in the required time. Disclosures were made of corruption in obtaining the passage of the last act, public attention was forcibly directed to the matter, the Senate judiciary committee declared that the subsidy of 1872, had been forfeited by non-fulfillment of the contract on the pai-t of the company, and the government consequently would not grant an extension of time. Both the Pacific and the Brazil subsidies ceased in 1875, and no others have been granted.

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