was called forth by the Stamp Act of 1765. In the course of debate he spoke as above. At the words, " and George III.,” he was interrupted by cries of “ Treason! Treason!” and, waiting for the cries to subside, he finished as above.

Calhoun, John Caldwell, was born in the Abbeville District, South Carolina, March 18, 1782, and died in Washington, March 31, 1850. He was a lawyer and a graduate of Yale. He was a representative in Congress from 1811 to 1817; then he became Secretary of War. From 1825 to 1831 he was Vice-President. In 1831 he resigned for the purpose of becoming Senator from South Carolina in order to take part in the debate then laging in the Senate. (See Foot's Resolution.) The intensity of the excitement in South Carolina is exemplified by the fact that medals were struck in his honor bearing the inscription, “First President of the Southern Confederacy.” From 1843 to 1845 he was Secretary of State. In the latter year he again became Senator. In politics he was a Democrat, although for a short time allied with the Whigs at the time of their first organization, but above all party ties he was a firm and consistent upholder of the doctrine of State Sov. ereignty. He believed the Union to be merely a number of sovereign and separate States joined by an alliance under a single government. He considered slavery a righteous and beneficent institution, and considered it the duty of Congress to protect and uphold it in the Territories.

Calico Foster.-A name given to Charles Foster, of Ohio (Governor 1880 to 1884), in allusion to his having kept a dry-goods store in earlier life

California. During the Mexican War, California was conquered by our troops (see Annexations IV.) and a provisional military government formed, which continued in existence after the peace of 1848 till the admission of the State into the Union, September 9, 1850. The capital is Sacramento. The population in 1880 was 864,694, and in the last census (1890) 1,208,130. California sends six members to the House of Representatives and has eight electoral votes. In national politics California is generally considered a Republican State. Its electoral vote was cast for the Republican candidate for President between 1860 and 1884, except in 1880, when all but one of the Democratic electors were chosen by a small majority. The derivation of its name is uncertain, but is supposed by some to come from the Spanish and to mean “hot furnace.” Popularly it is known as the Golden State, in allusion to the large deposits of gold found in its soil. (See Governors; Legislatures.)

Canadian Rebellion.—In 1837 an insurrection took place in Canada, many of the inhabitants being dissatisfied with governmental methods. The rebellion was completely crushed in about a year. It is of interest in our history because it threatened to cause international complications between Great Britain and the United States. Many inhabitants of this country, largely those of Irish extraction, sympathized with the Canadians and sought to aid them. In spite of the fact that our government declared its strict neutrality, about 700 men, chiefly from New York State, under the lead of Mackenzie, one of the leaders of the Canadian revolt, seized and fortified Navy Island, situated in the Niagara River and within British jurisdiction. They made this a base of operations for raids on the Canadian shore until they were forced to evacuate by a battery of guns on the Canadian side. The steamer Caroline, which they had made use of, was seized by the Canadian militia at a wharf on the American side of the river, and sent, on fire, over Niagara Falls. (See McLeod Case.) Our government sent General Scott with a force of soldiers to prevent infractions of our neutral position.

Canal Ring.-In 1874 Samuel J. Tilden was elected Governor of the State of New York. He had been prominent in the overthrow of the Tweed Ring in New York City, and his suspicions had been directed against the management of the State canals. His first annual message to the Legislatnre called attention to the system of canal repairs. This subject had been under investigation some five years earlier, but nothing had como of it. Tilden had made extensive inquiries and was able to present facts to the Legislature showing that vast sums had been fraudulently expended and wasted on the work of repairs. Ostensibly, contracts for this work were given out to the lowest bidder; but these lowest bidders so arranged their bids that while some materials were contracted for at ridiculously low figures, others were put in at monstrously high prices; the contracts were then, by collusion with the authorities, altered so as to require much of the expensive and little or none of the cheap material, this altered contract being by the conspirators not regarded as a new one (which it was, in fact), and, therefore, not again offered subject to competition. In his message the Governor showed that on ten contracts, ostensibly let for about $425,000, there had been paid about $1,560,000. He pointed out that while the books had shown an apparent surplus of canal revenues over expenditures of about $5,800,000 for a period of five years, there had actually been a deficiency of $5,100,000. His vigorous measures succeeded in breaking up the Ring and lead to the passage of laws securing the State from that quarter in the future.

Canal Scrip Fraud.—In 1839 the Canal Trustees of the State of Illinois issued about $390,000 of Canal Scrip, payable in ninety days. This had practically all been presented for redemption before 1843, but, as subsequently appeared, the certificates had simply been laid away and not canceled. In 1859 some of the scrip appeared in circulation, and a legislative inquiry revealed the fact that $223,182.66 of these redeemed but uncanceled certificates had been re-issued by Governor Joel A. Matteson. As soon as his name was connected with the matter, Matteson offered to make good any loss to the State, while at the same time maintaining that he had acquired the scrip by investment. The legislative committee was not disposed to press the matter, and although the Grand Jury of Sangamon County had voted to indict him, the vote was reconsidered and the matter dropped. The State was reimbursed for all but a small part of its loss.

Capital of the United States. The first national capital was New York City. The agricultural members of Congress desired a change, because they feared the influence of surrounding commercial interests on legistion. Philadelphia was objected to by the Southern members, because the Quakers were urging the abolition of slavery. A compromise was finally made by which the capital was to be Philadelphia for ten years, and after that, a district ceded by Maryland and Virginia to the National Government. Accordingly the seat of government was removed to Philadelphia in 1790. In the meantime Maryland, in 1788, and Virginia, in 1789, had ceded a district ten miles square lying on both sides of the Potomac, which was first known as the Federal City and afterward, in 1791, obtained the name of the Territory of Columbia, the city being known as the City of Washington. On November 17, 1800, the Government was removed to Washington, where it has since remained. The city at that time was a curious combination of huts and half-finished buildings of greater pretension, with a small population. (See District of Columbia.)

Carlisle, John Griffin, was born in Kentucky, September 5, 1835. He is a lawyer by profession. He served in the State Legislature, both in the House and the Senate, from 1859 to 1861, and from 1869 to 1871. In the latter year he was elected Lieutenant-Governor. He was elected to the Forty-fifth, Forty-sixth, Fortyseventh, Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Congresses, the last time after a contest. In 1883 he was elected Speaker, and was re-elected to that office in the Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Congresses. He is a Democrat.

Carpet-Baggers.-A name given by the Southern whites to the Northern whites that, after the Civil War, came South and took an active part in politics. Many held Federal offices and others came for the purpose of qualifying for elective offices by means of a short residence. The name arose from the fact that few of them intended to settle permanently, but carried (it was said) their effects in a carpet-bag. It was they that organized and largely controlled the negro yote.

Cartel is an agreement between belligerent States relating to the methods of carrying on the war, as for the exchange of prisoners, declaring certain ground neutral, repressing marauders, carrying on postal communication, or the like. A cartel-ship (sometimes simply called a cartel) is one used in exchanging prisoners or carrying communications to the enemy. Cartels for the exchange of prisoners are perhaps the most common. These are usually concluded by the two governments, but generals may treat with each other directly. An exchange of prisoners is beneficial to each side, which thereby recovers its own men and is saved the trouble and expense of guarding and feeding its captives. In an exchange, the rank of the prisoners is taken into account, and so far as possible, man is exchanged for man of equal rank.

Cass, Lewis, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, October 9, 1782, and died at Detroit, June 17, 1866. He was a lawyer. During the War of 1812 he rose to the rank of Brigadier-General; from 1813 to 1831 he was Governor of Michigan Territory; under Jackson he was Secretary of War; under Buchanan, Secretary of State; from 1845 to 1857 he was United States Senator from Michigan. In 1848 he was a candidate for President. In politics he was a Democrat.

Cast an Anchor to the Windward.—This phrase occurs in one of the Mulligan Letters (which see).

Casus Belli is a Latin phrase meaning a reason for war. Nations usually seek to justify a war by announcing a cause for it, but the pretexts are various, and international law has not yet decided which shall be considered as sufficient justifications.

Caucus.—This word is variously derived, but it is most probably a corruption of the word caulkers, a term derisively applied to those that attended political meetings in Boston at the time of ill-feeling between the citizens and the British troops before the Revolution. Laborers in ship-yards and seafaring men are said to have been numerous at these meetings, hence the term. The term has now come to be applied to any political

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