political supremacy. As the Southern States had declared they should do in the event of Lincoln's clection, they one by one passed ordinances of secession (see Secession) and formed a government under the name of the Confederate States of America. While this was going on it became evident that war would be the result. The first gun was fired on January 9, 1861, by batteries in Charleston harbor, which drove back the steamer Star of the West, bearing supplies to Fort Sumter. The actual outbreak of war, however, is dated from April 12th, when Fort Sumter was bombarded. The first blood was shed in Baltimore on April 19th in a street attack on the Sixth Massachusetts regiment, which was on its way to Washington. Bull Run (July 21, 1861) was the first great battle. It resulted in a severe defeat for the Union army; its effect was to encourage the South and raise a determined spirit in the North, and to unify both sections in support of their respective policies. The Mississippi was opened to Union vessels by the capture of New Orleans in April, 1862, and of Vicksburg and Port Hudson in July, 1863. The latter month also saw the Union victory of Gettysburg, by which the Confederate attempt to carry the war into the Northern States was overthrown. From July, 1863, the final victory of the national cause was assured. Sherman's march to the sea in the latter part of 1864, cut through the heart of the Confederacy and did incalculable damage to the Southern cause. The vigorous blows which, in 1864 and the spring of 1865, Grant dealt to Lee's army in Virginia, brought the war to a conclusion. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Johnston's army surrendered on April 26th, and within two months more all the Confederate forces had laid down their arms. The result of the war was to establish the fact that the United States is a nation and not a league of States, and that no State has the right to secede from the Union. It also resulted in the abolition of slavery. The proclamation of emancipation, issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863, declared the freedom of all slaves within certain designated territory which was in

rebellion, and the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, adopted after the war, extinguished slavery in the United States. (See Emancipation; Amendments to the Constitution.) The readmission to the Union of the States that had formed the Confederacy is treated under Reconstruction. The exclusion of representatives of the Confederate States from Congress during the war insured to the Republicans majorities in both houses. The Republican party advocated, and by its legislation enforced, a vigorous prosecution of the war, while the Democratic party, as a body, was not in hearty sympathy with it, though many " War Democrats," as they were called, were not an inch behind the foremost Republicans. (See Amnesty; Drafts; and similar titles for subjects connected with legislation and the execution of the laws.)

Clay, Henry, was born in Hanover County, Virginia, April 12, 1777, and died in Washington, June 29, 1852. He was by profession a lawyer. In 1806 and 1807, and from 1809 to 1811, he was United States Senator from Kentucky; from 1811 to 1825 he was a Representative, and six times Speaker of the House, From 1825 to 1829 he was Secretary of State, and from 1836 to 1842, and from 1849 until his death he was again Senator. He was originally a War Democrat during the War of of 1812. He was then of the Adams and Clay Republicans, taking part in the scrub race for the presidency in 1825. He became the leader of the Whig party. In 1831 and 1844 he was the Whig candidate for President. Personally he was one of the most attractive and irresistible of men, and as a leader he was almost worshipped. He was particularly fertile in compromises, the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850 being his best known achievements.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, The, was negotiated at Washington in April, 1850, by John M. Clayton, Secretary of State under Taylor, and Sir Edward Bulwer, British Minister to the United States. The treaty provided that neither the United States nor Great Britain should attempt to control a proposed canal across Nicarauga, in Central America. It provided further for the neutrality of the canal, and it guaranteed encouragement to all lines of inter-oceanic communication. The terms of the treaty were afterward much disputed. In 1882 our government intimated to Great Britain that the canal having become impracticable because of reasons for which Great Britain alone was responsible, the United States considered the treaty as no longer binding, but Great Britain still regards the treaty as in force.

Clay Whigs.—The death of William Henry Harrison raised John Tyler to the presidency. Both were Whigs. Henry Clay was the leader of the Whig party. Tyler was one of those nullifiers that had remained with the Whig party when Calhoun and his followers withdrew about 1838. The contrast between him and the other leaders of his party at once showed itself, and a bitter fight ensued between the followers of Clay and those of Tyler. Clay's adherents were known as Clay Whigs. The first quarrel was on the subject of a charter for a national bank. The President was opposed to its being chartered, and vetoed a bill for that purpose drawn by the Secretary of the Treasury, giving as his reason the presence of certain features which he considered objectionable. A bill was hastily drawn up embodying the President's suggestions, but this, too, received his veto. The conflict was continued on other measures. The House next elected was more strongly Democratic. (See Whig Party.)

Clean Sweep is a phrase used in politics to indicate the removal by an official of all of his subordinates not belonging to his political party.

Cleveland, Grover, was born at Caldwell, New Jersey, March 18, 1837. He moved to Buffalo, New York, early in life, and was there admitted to the bar. He was Assistant District-Attorney from 1863 to 1866; in 1870 he was elected Sheriff, and in 1881 Mayor of Buffalo. In 1882 he was elected Governor of New York by the unprecedented majority of over 192,000, owing to a split in the Republican ranks. He is a Democrat. In 1884 he was nominated for President and elected. Had New York gone against him he would have been defeated, and he carried that State by a plurality of but 1,047 votes in a total of over 1,150,000.

Clinton, De Witt, was born at Little Britain, New York, March 2, 1769, and died at Albany, February 11, 1828. He graduated at Columbia College, and was admitted to the bar. He was elected to the New York Senate in 1799. From 1802 to 1803 he was a United States Senator. From 1817 to 1822, and from 1822 to 1827, he was Governor of New York. He held other State offices, and was Mayor of New York City. In 1812 he ran against Madison for the presidency He was a Democrat, but he and his followers in New York constituted a distinct faction, frequently allied with the Whigs. Though a Democrat, he believed in internal improvements, though for the benefit of the State rather than of the nation. He was the chief promoter of the Erie Canal.

Clinton, George, was born in Ulster County, New York, July 26, 1739, and died April 20, 1812. He was Governor of New York from 1777 to 1795, and from 1801 to 1804. He was the head of the powerful Clinton family. He opposed the adoption of the Constitution. He was Vice-President from 1804 to 1812, having been defeated for the same office in 1789 and 1792.

Clintonian Platform. (See Clintonians.)

Clintonians.-In New York State the Clinton family was originally opposed to the adoption of the Constitution; the Livingstons and Schuylers favored it. Alexander Hamilton was a connection of the Schuylers, and Morgan Lewis of the Livingstons. Aaron Burr had at first been a lukewarm Federalist. The Clintons were naturally at once of the Republican (Democratic-Republican) party; to them in about the year 1800 were joined the Livingstons, or Lewisites, and Burr and his followers, the Burrites. The union of the Burrites with the others was not firm, and, dissension following, their influence rapidly waned, the national administration recognizing and aiding the other faction. About 1807 a split in the Republican party in the State led to the ascendency of the Clintons over the Lewisites, the State patronage being freely used by the Clintons to accomplish their object. The Lewisites and Burrites now joined hands and declared against George Clinton and in favor of Madison for the presidency, to succeed Jefferson. The combination of the Lewisites and Burrites is usually known as the “Martling men,” from their meeting-place in New York City-Martling's Long Room. The Clinton faction was known as the Clintonians. These latter were thus naturally opposed to the administration, and their dislike to the restrictive measures on commerce at this period threw them toward the Federalists, with whom The Clintonians now frequently acted, jointly supporting DeWitt Clinton for the presidency in 1812. His friends issued an address, known as the Clintonian Platform, in which they attacked the congressional caucus and the Virginia influence. (See those titles.) Madison had the support of Jefferson, and his supporters were known in consequence as Jefferson Democrats. A split among the Clintonians now threw DeWitt Clinton and the Federalists still more closely together, but in 1815 this coalition was defeated and the Federalists finally destroyed. Clinton and the others of his party now became reconciled, and in 1817 he was elected Governor. The Martling men had about 1812 revivified the Tammany organization and had become known as the “Bucktails,” a name derived from the Tammany insignia of a buck's tail worn in the hat instead of a feather. On his election in 1817, Clinton inaugurated the canal policy which ended in giving to the State the Erie Canal. The Bucktails naturally opposed this policy, and the name Bucktail came to be applied to any opponent of the canals. Among the prominent Clintonians had been Daniel D. Tompkins, now out of politics, and Martin Van Buren, who had joined the Bucktails. About 1822 the Bucktails came to be recognized as the regular Republicano (Democratic-Republican) party of the State. In the election of that year the Clintonians were den feated. In 1824, however, the removal of Clinton from the post of Canal Commissioner created a reaction in

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