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A counsellor of state, who had ferent opinion upon each subject, neglected to have a velvet border the decisions in every cause, with ftript off a cloak, which he had the reasons for them, are to be inworn for many years, was fum- serted. Any person, in whatsoever moned before the tribunal, whose office, that refuses to communicate province it is to put the edict a- these registers, is to lose his place. gainst luxury in force, and receiv. The senate alone has, an exclued a severe reprimand from those sive privilege of not communicat. grave judges for the misdemeanor. ing its debates upon foreign matA lady also of the first quality,

ters; which it

may

for a time be was obliged to appear before the requisite to keep secret. Every same tribunal, and underwent an person has liberty, during the fefequal censure for drinking a dish fions of the diet, to make obferof chocolate in her box at the vations on the debates and resolu.' playhouse.

tions of each deputation of the Among these regulations, many ftates, concerning any business, of which seem of a trifling nature, whether general or particular, exone has been made of the greatest cept such as regard the immediate importance ; a law for enlarging adminiftration of government; and the liberty of the press. By this may print his obfervations on the edict, all persons have liberty to subject. And to facilitate a free write and reason, on all subjects enquiry, the king is to get an exin general, and to publish their act account of the situation of the opinions. The laws of the king. ftate in every department, made dom, their utility, or their bad out and printed, before the meeteffects, are subject to discussion ing of each diet. and censure. All alliances, anci- There are however some re. ent and modern, in which the strictions, which will í

fufficiently kingdom is engaged, and all new guard against the licentiousness of ones which may be hereafter pro. authors. No person is to write posed, or even concluded, are sub- against the established religion of ject to a free enquiry, and to have the kingdom, nor against the funthe good or bad consequences at- damental politicalconftitution, for tending them pointed out, the rights of the different orders of

In order that the public may re- the itate. Personal satires and pas. ceive the most authentic informa quinades, contrary to the respect tion upon all these points, every due to crowned 'heads, or injuria. person has a right to demand, of ous to the reputation of private the different colleges etablished persons, are strictly forbid. for the administration of public The printer is ordered to insert business, from the senate to the 'the author's name in the title-page courts of the lowest jurisdiction, a of each book; in which case, the communication of the registers or author alone is liable to be brought journals, wherein all their deci. to an account for any exception, fions are entered. The courts are able passage ; but if the printer obliged to keep these journals very neglects this injunction, he is to correct ; and the debates, the dif- ' be considered as the author, and is

an.

answerable for the book. There cultivate and encourage the arts is however an exception, that ifą and fciences; to make her empire writer has particular reasons for an afylum to the learned and ingenot publishing his name, his leav. nious; and to reform the manners ing it in writing with the printer, and instruct the minds of the peo. to be produced if legally called ple, through the extent of its most for, will discharge the latter from diftant provinces. all the consequences. This liber- The transit of the planet Venus, ty, that is granted to the public, over the sun, which is to happen of investigating the principles up in the summer of 1769, has added a on which their own business is new opportunity ot'thewing as well conducted, and of animadverting, her munificence, as the attention as well upon the acts of the senate, the pays to astronomy. This as upon those of the courts of juf- great princess wrote a letter from tice, and the other departments of Moscow with her own hand, to the state, will be so great a check Count Wolodimer Orlow, director upon the conduct of them all, and of the academy of sciences at Peattended with such manifeft ad. tersburgh ; wherein fhe desires the vantages to the people, that it re. academy to inform her of the quires no comment to explain most proper places in her domi. them, and is such a precedent as nions for the making of those obmay well deserve the attention of servations; with an offer to send other ftates.

workmen, &c. and to construct A general spirit of improvement buildings in all those places, which seems to reign through the north. the academy may think

proper

for The young king of Denmark ap- 'the purpose, and to grant every pears to set out with all those dis- other affistance to the undertaking pofitions which can contribute to which it may require. She also make his people happy, and the desired, if there was not a sufficient ftate respectable.

number of astronomers in the His Majesty is said to have a academy to make observations in scheme in agitation to restore the all the places required, 'to give peasants in his dominions to some her notice, that she might send a share of their natural liberties; in proper number of the officers of which, if he succeeds, he will ac- her marine, to qualify themselves, quire great honour; and by grant- under the eye of the profeffors in ing to the lower and more nume- the academy, for that undertakrous part of his subjects the enjoy. ing. ment of perfonal freedom, will Such is the extent of this vaft make amends to the country for empire, that the observations the loss of their political conftitu. which are to be made, buth on the tion.

tranfit and exit of this planet, • The Emprefs of Russia ftill pro- the one in the frozen regions to. ceeds on the same enlarged and wards the pole, and the other on enlightened plan, which we have the borders of the Caspian fea, had occasion heretofore so much to are to be made within its own li. commend. She fill continues to mits ; to some part of which,

astro.

astronomers from every part of This Augean stable the empress Europe are preparing to go to be- has determined to clean; to which hold that remarkable event. purpose the summoned deputies

We observe with pleasure, upon from every province in the empire this occasion, that English artifi- to attend her at Moscow, there cers preserve the rank they have to form an entire and new code hitherto held in the mechanics of laws for the government of the fubfervient to this science, The whole. The success, attending acamedy, at Petersburgh has ap- this patrotic attempt, will, we plied to a member of the royal hope, make a part of the subject Society of London, to procure the of our future observations. necessary inftruments for the pur. We have already had an oppor. pose of proceeding successfully in tunity of taking notice of the good that important observation. Mr. qualities of the present Grand Seig. Ramoufky, who was the writer nior; his humanity to his bro. upon this occafion, candidly ac- thers, and the perfect and friendly knowledges the great joy of the good neighbourhood he has ob. academy, and their obligations to ferved in all the troubles of Po. Mr. Short, for procuring them land, are much to his honour. He those inftruments; and confeses continues to give fresh opportuni. their doubts of being able to an. ties of extolling his character, and swer the views of the Empress, till has in a recent instance again de. they had received his letter. Our parted from the rigid policy of the readers will see two letters upon Porte, by adinitting the young this occafion, in the Appendix to prince of Wallachia to succeed his the Chronicle.

father in that office. He has had With respect to internal policy; also an opportunity of shewing the Empress of Russia has under his humanity and benevolence, on taken a great and arduous taik, occafion of one of his men of war and worthy of an exalted mind. which took fire in the harbour of The laws of this vast empire were Conftantinople, and was the cause voluminous to a degree of the of a great many fhips belonging greatest absurdity, were perplex- to his subjects being consumed. ed, insufficient, in many cases Upon this occasion, though it was contradictory, and so loaded with after midnight, he attended in precedents, reports, cafes, and o- person, and gave his orders with pinions, that they afforded an ihe greatest activity, to prevent eternal scene of altercation, and the farther dreadful effects of the were scarcely to be reconciled or conflagration; and gave directions understood by the very professors that the unhappy sufferers should of them. The particular laws of be paid their full losses out of his the different provinces were also treasury. continually interfering and clash- But the particular circumstance ing, and caused such confufion, of his life, which may possibly that the whole presented an end- preferve his name with great

ho. less chaos, and effaced almost e. nour to pofterity, when even the very trace of original fyftem or cruel and ferocious conquests of design.

his predecessors are lost in oblivion, is the encouragement he has consequence of this refusal, either given to the introduction of the to enforce the demand, or to resent Art of printing in his dominions. the contempt Thewn to its authoHe has also issued orders for the rity; nor is it probably that the translating of several of the most present state of its marine will ad. valuable books from the European mit of such an attempt. languages into the Turkish. It . In a government constituted like will not require the aid of a very this it is not easy to say what ef. warm imagination, in some degree fects, causes, even in appearance to conceive the great revolutions the most trilling, may produce. in the manners of the people, and Many fymptoms of weakness ma. in the policy of the state, which nifelt themselves in this

great em. the introduction of learning into pire. A little prince of Georgia that mighty empire might proba- has been capable of giving it a bly occasion. Upon the whole, considerable alarm. The piratical this prince's reign has been hither states of Barbary do not think it to marked with a lenity, gentle worth while, as we have seen, to ness, and equity, which have been purchase its protection. An in. till now but little experienced un- surrection of peasants in a frontier der the Ottoman line.

province, which would in some The piratical states of Barbary countries be little more than an have entirely thrown off that de- object of police, may have there sependance which; ever since thé rious consequence on the state. days of the famous Barbarossa, for An insurrection of this kind has above two hundred years, they happened this year in the province have had on the Turkish empire. of Montenero, which is tributaryto A Serakier, who was sent by the the Grand Seignior, but which bora, Portc to Algiers, to demand ders

the Venetian Dalmatia, twenty years tribute, which was The country is rough, mountainous then due, was answered by the and in a great measure inaccessible; Dey, that he was firmly resolved the inhabitants partake of the nanot only to refuse to discharge the ture of the soil and situation, and arrear, but also to pay any tribute are rude, ferocious, and warlike. for the future; that the state of These people are of the Greek re. Algiers was absolutely free and ligion; and though they have at independent of the Porie ; that it different times paid tribute, both stood in no need of the Porte's to the Turks and Venecians, yet, protection; and that he, the Se- from their situation and other cir. Jaskier, "might return to Conftan. cumstances, they have escaped tinople with that answer. The that total state of subjection and Seraskier was not more fortunate fervitude, to which the neighbourin the execution of his commission ing poffeffors of a happier foil, to the rest of those states, on each and more accessible country, were of whom he had demands of the fubject. fame nature, and received answers A foreigner, who exercised the from them all nearly to the same profeflion of a physician, and went purpose. We do not find that the by the name of Stefano, has for Porte has taken any measures in some time resided amongst these

upon

people,

people. This adventurer, who is it is ofual to magnify such mat.: described to be a man of fine figure ters, to have money in great plen- and great address, taking advan- ty, and to distribute it among his

tage of their ignorance, and of a soldiers with the utmost profufion. -violent attachment which, from The province contains, it is said, religion and some former benefits, 30,000 men able to bear arms. they have to the Muscovite name This affair, not only giving some and nation, has publicly declared alarm to the Porte, but also to the himself to be the Czar Peter the state of Venice, their troops in Third ; and pretends that the re- Dalmatia have been ordered to afport of his death was designedly femble upon the frontiers, under spread at the time by his friends, the command of a general. After to favour his escape, which he hap- all, it is probable that this infur. pily effected.

rection will not be attended with Under the favour of this name, any other consequences, than its and by the assistance of the Calo. being a fresh instance of the ease yers (Greek monks) who have with which a daring impoftor warmly feconded his pretences, may for a short time delude an and who have a great influence ignorant people, and of the almost over the inhabitants, he has got certain destruction to the underhimself received and acknowledged taker which finally concludes the as the Czar, not only by the peo- attempt. This is not a suitable ple, but by the bishop and all the period of time for the revival of other orders ; and is said to be al. counterfeit Demetrius's; nor could ready at the head of some thousand they now set capital cities in foldiers.

flames, lay nations waste, and wade This adventurer is said, though through torrents of blood as here. probably without foundation, as tofore.

CH A P III.

State of affairs in Poland. Original causes of the late disputes. Ancient

state of that country. Conversion to the Chriftian religion. Acceffion of the great dutchy:of Lithuania, and other provinces of the kingdom of Poland. Ancient siate of the constitution, of religion, &c. Řemarkable law pased by Sigifmund Auguftus, in favour of Christians of all denominations. Final union of ihe kingdom of Poland and the great dutchy of Lithuania. The kingdom modelled into a republic, upon the death of Sigismund Auguftus. The first diet of the republic. A perpetual peace agreed upon between the Disidents. The original meaning of that

term.

THOUGH we

gave a short kingdoin of Poland, yet, as these of the causes of dispute that fub- fince more interesting, both in refifted between the Roman Catho. fpect of the consequences to the dic and the Diffident parties in the parties principally concerned, and

of

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