inftitutions in the duft ; all these declared Queen of Naples; but upmay forbid the hopes of a lasting on this occalion it made no great permanency to any system of tran- change, and the young Prince has quillity, let the present appear heen tince contracted to her next ances be ever fo ferene.

fifter the Archduchess Caroline, It must be admitted that this age who is about a year younger. seems to have a cause of contention Unnatural as the present friend. more particularly its own, and ship and alliance between those an. which cannot fail to supply, in cient and hereditary enemies, the fome degree, those which are now houses of Bourbon and Austria, by time and change of manners may appear, and dangerous as the extinguished. The desire of naval effects of it might at first seem to power, which at present acts so many of their neighbours; it is not itrongly upon many of the nations perhaps impossible, but it may conin Europe, will generate daily dif. tribute to preserve that tranquil. putes, and must become a fruitful liry, which seemed to be so much source of diffenfion. The spirit of endangered by it. This will apcommerce will not be confined to pear the less problematical, if we the acquisitions of industry. The reflect on the many wars in which new adventurers in this field will the bickerings and enmity of these encroach upon the old, while the two families have engaged for near same passion will act as powerfully two centuries the reit of Europe. with the old poffeffors, not to re. Neither does this alliance appear linquish any of those profits which fo very formidable to its neigh. usually came into their hands, and, bours, as it might have done in to which they will think that long another situation of things. The prefcriprion has given them a right. great weight which has accumu.

With respect to other matters, Jated in the northern balance of the general state of affairs in Eu. late years, may well prevent the tope has suffered no material change scale from preponderating excesfince the conclusion of our last vo. fively in their iavour. lume. The same.close union and It does not at present appear, alliance ftill subfifts between the that any of the three powers, in different branches of the house of question are disposed, or indeed in Bourbon. The friendship and union a condition to difturb the public between that family and the houfe repose. France has been long a of Austria, is still more closely ce. loser by her wars, nor do the late mented by a marriage between the trials she has made of her strength, young king of Naples, and a comparatively with that of her daughter of the Empress Queen. neighbours, give the least encouThe hopes of this alliance might ragement to her seeking for new. indeed have been frustrated in a less The system of Europe is much

numerous family, by changed since those victorious 15th Oct. the death of the Arche days of Lewis the XIVth, when 1767 duchess Maria Josepha, he was so much the terror of it.

who was seized with Other nations have gained great the small-pox in a few days after additional strength, whilft France her being married by proxy and has withoût question rather loft

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ground; yet it must be owned, not the two nations, is in some degree in such a degree, but that her great wearing off; and it is observable, natural resources, and the very that more French of distinction valuable and improveable colonies have visited England since the last she is still possessed of, will always war, than at any other period since make her very respectable, if not the English lost their great possefformidable. Ac present she is load. fions in that country. ed with a very heavy debt, which The most interesting event which will require length of time, joined the past year has produced in Holwith itrict economy and close land, has been the marriage of the attention to her finances, to dif- Prince Stadtholder with the Prin.' charge. Nor will her commerce, cess Royal of Pruflia. Nothing though greatly recovered, sudden- could be more pleasing to the ly forget the shocks it received in whole republic than this marriage, the last war.

Agriculture has, nor could any thing happen of a through a series of mismanage. more interesting nature; the pubment, been long on the decline in lic and private rejoicings they that country ; it was the error of made, and the marks of respect the famous Colbert, that he wants and regard which they shewed the ed to form the French into a nation princess upon every occasion, fufof manufacturers, and forgot that fciently teftified the sense they had agriculture is the principal itrength of it. By this marriage the comof a state. The French ministry, as monwealih has entered into a nearer well as the nation, seem now fully connection with a great, a powerfenfible of this error; and agricul. ful, and a neighbouring prince, ture meets with all that encou. whose disposition, if not a certain ragement and attention which it friend, was always to be dreaded; fo juítly merits. It will, however, and the vicinity of whose territo. require length of time, and all the ries to those of the states, would leisure of peace, to bring it to any always furnish sufficient matter for degree near the perfection to which altercation, whenever he chose to it is capable of arriving.

feek for it. At the fame time this Upon the whole it is evident, marriage is justly to be looked upthat nothing can be so essential to on in a very interesting light with the interest of France, as the con respect to the Proteftant fyftem in tinuation of peace; and that they general, and to connect that chain muft be the most pernicious poli. of union which it will always be tics, which could at present urge so much the common interes to it to enter wanionly into a war. preserve between the maritime and

With respeci to England, France northern powers, and the Protesseems at present to be in a ftate of tant princes of Germany. perfect good neighbourhood ; nor In the north, affairs at present is there any apparent cause of quar- wear the most benign aspect. The rel likely io disturb his harmony. great disputes in Poland about the It may not perhaps be quite vis. Diflidents, which seemed pregnant onary to imagine that the violent with so much danger to the geneanimosity and national prejudice, ral repose, are, through the weighwhich has fo long fubfifted between ty and effectual mediation of the great powers, who by treaty as condition annexed, that if any of well as connection were interested his cruizers should happen to be in their consequences, brought in- taken, the republic should repair to a train of being settled upon the loss in ready money. the mof permanent and happy These dishonourable proposals footing.


were refused with a proper disdain Germany has offered no matter by the senate ; and as the Dey of of political observation during the Algiers had broken the peace, and course of the present year. The imprisoned their conful, they equipEmperor and king of Pruffia spend ped a squadron of men of war, the summers, either in reviewing which they dispatched to Algiers, their armies, or in making pro- under the command of Admiral gresses through different parts of Emo, to bring him to reason. The their dominions; by which they Dey continued obftinate ; upon become eye witnesses of the im- which the admiral, according to his provements that are requisite to be orders, immediately declared war made, the encouragement that is against him, and failed out of the neceffary to be given, and of the harbour to fulfil his instructions, distresses and wants of their sub. which were to block up the port, jects. Notwithstanding this at- and destroy all the Algerine cortention to domeftic and internal fairs he could meet with. happiness, the two great powers These vigorous resolutions foon of the empire are far from being brought the Dey to temper, and negligent of their military depart. indeed to a submission as mean as ments; the sword seems only to his demands had been infolent; he slumber, but does not sleep, and found himself under a necessity of their armies are kept complete, making use of the mediation of and in the best condition. The the British consul, to procure a reEmpress Queen has published an newal of the peace upon the origi. edict, whereby the soldiers in all nal terms. her armies are allowed and even The other parts of Italy have encouraged to marry, a corrective afforded little remarkable, except in some degree to the political mif- the expulsion of the Jesuits from chiefs attendant on those extensive Naples and Parma ; as these events military establishments.

are intimately connected with, or Turning our eyes to the south- may rather be looked upon as conward, the scene is there alsoentirely fequences of, the measures which pacific. Indeed the new Dey of had been already taken in Spain Alġiers had made fome extraordi- to the fame purpose, we Mall innary demands upon the republic of clude them under that head; as . Venice : among the rest, besides well as the ineffectual remonthe payment of an exorbitant sum ftrances made by the court of Rome of money, he insisted that his cor- in their favour. The edict which fairs should have free liberty to has been passed by the regency of cruize in the gulf of Venice, and Parma, with respect to ecclesiasto take the ships of any nation tical affairs, and which almost towith whom he was not bound by tally secludes the Roman see from treaty i with this extraordinary all jurisdiction in that duchy,

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together with the consequences, couraging, restraining, and dis. which are said to be an excommu- tressing the British factories and nication, will find their proper commerce in that kingdom. This place in the transactions of the en. conduct seems the more wholly suing year. The power and inte. Unaccountable, as the very exil, , rest of the court of Rome is daily tence of that nation as an inde, losing ground in Italy ; where pendent state has so long and so other states, besides those we have often depended upon the powerful mentioned, are taking measures protection of Great Britain; which to circumscribe it. The govern. has also, upon every other occafion, ment of Milan, which includes always acted the part of a most the Austrian Lombardy, has pub- faithful ally and generous friend, lished a law, by which all the If the advantages arising from the rights which the pope

commerce between the two natibishops have hitherto exercised

ons were not mutual, this conduct over ecclefiaftics, either with re. might admit of some plea in its gard to their effects or their per. justification ; but the contrary is lons, is transferred to a council, evidently shewn, by the great preestablished for that purpose at Mi. ference which has been so long lan. All eccleßaftics are obliged given by England to the Portu, to sell the estates which they have guese wines, for which they could become possessed of since the year find no other market, and the con. 1722 ; and no subject, whether sequent immense consumption of ecclefiaftic or secular, is permit. them in these countries. Many ted to go to Rome to folicit any fa- have with reason been surprised vour, except letters of indulgence, at the fupinenefs of the British without the consent of the said minifter, in putting up so long council.

with the frequent oppressions, in'This law is the same as that sults, and indignities, which have which was published at Venice been so repeatedly offered to the under the pontificate of Benedict English merchants in that counXIV. and which occafioned so try. Nor have they been less surmany debates, that the Republic prised at the temerity of the Porwas obliged to abolish it in the iuguese minifter, in venturing to beginning of the pontificate of rouse the indignation of a nation, Clement XIII. but the present which could so easily and fo effeca law is passed at a period much tually do itself ample justice.', more favourable to the indepen- The irregularity and inclemency dency of sovereigns.

of the seasons for fome years past, Portugal has afforded but little in different parts of Europe, has material in the course of the past occafioned an uncertainty and year. Whether from fome milta- great deficiency in the crops. of ken notion in politics, or from several countries, by which the. fome national prejudice, or what-- poor have suffered great distresses. ever other cause, is uncertain; but The ecclesiastical state, and some the present prime minister in that other parts of Italy, have been fecountry has taken every occasion, verely affected by this calamity, during his administration, of dis. and were it not for that happy


effect of navigation and commerce, which is not interrupted by the by which the wants of one nation fquabbles or wars between their are supplied from the superabun. respective states. This good disa dance of another, famine would position does not only add greatly have thinned the race of mankind to the advancement of knowledge in many places. England, which and learning, but will also have usually supplied its neighbours a happy effect in wearing off those with such immense quantities of illiberal prejudices, and inveterate grain, and allowed a considerable animofities, with which, to the misbounty on the exportation of it, fortune of mankind, they are so has been a sufferer from the fame apt to regard all those whom they cause, and it has required the ut. do not know, and who do not form most attention of the legislature, a part of the same particular comto guard against and prevent the munity, or speak the same landreadful confequences attending guage with themselves. This li. it.

beral intercourse, together with It gives us pleasure to observe, the continual translation of books as a distinction peculiar to the pre- from one language to another, will fent age, the friendly intercourse, by degrees bring mankind in some harmony, and free communication measure acquainted, and, it is to of knowledge, which at prefent be hoped, wear off a great part of sublifts between the learned of all that hearty ill-will which they the countries in Europe ; and bore to each other as strangers.

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Stri&t attention of the government of Sweden to prevent luxury. An im

portant law made for enlarging the liberty of the press in that kingdom. Denmark. Great preparations making in Ruffia to observe the transit of the planet Venus over the fun : The Empress writes a letter upon that fubje to the academy at Petersburg. Deputies from all the provinces of the empire are fummoned to Moscow, to form a new code of laws. State of affairs in Turkey. Encouragement given by the Grand Seignior, to introduce the art of printing in his dominions. The piratical fates of Barbary refuse to pay ihe ancient tribute to the Porte. An infurre&tion in the pro. vince of Montenero.

IN Sweden; the whole attention luxury, are put in execution with.

of as . out diftinction of age or quality ; nistry, is directed to the improve. and it seems to be laid down as a ment of their manufactures, the maxim, to enforce the most rigid encouragement of agriculture, and private, as well as public aco-, the reftri&tion within the narroweft nomy. li mits of every kind of foreign This principle has been pursued fa perfuity. The fumptuary laws, to the minutett detail, and enforced and those against every species of with the greatest rigour.

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