feet, cost of erection, $76,000; foundries, 1, with a capacity to supply the entire demand of the county; tanneries, 1, capable of supplying the county with leather; breweries, 4; soda manufactories, 3; lime kilns, 3.

Mineral Resources.—In addition to the placer mines in this county, there is an extensive region abounding in quartz, which is in many places remarkably rich and productive. Quartz mills in operation, 32; steam 8, water 24; number of stamps, 402 ; product per annum, $1,350,120 ; number of arastras, 50; Howland's rotary mills, 1. There is an extensive marble quarry iu the vicinity of Volcano, which is yielding many beautiful specimens.

Canals and Water Ditches.—Number of canals, 32; length, 415 miles; cost of construction, $1,050,000; assessed value, $280,600.

Ferries and Bridges.—Ferries, 2; bridges, 6. <

Finances.—January, 1858: Floating debt, including amount due Calaveras County, $38,149,63; cash in Treasury, $15,782,17; actual debt, $22,367,46. Receipts for fiscal year, 1857, $50,129; disbursements, $34,347; value of property assessed, $2,000,000.

Attorneys.—Drytown: G. W. Seaton; Fiddletown; "W. M. Sewell; Jackson: J. W. Armstrong, S. B. Axtell, R. M. Briggs, A. C. Brown, W. W. Cope, Thomas Grant, James F. Hubbard, A. H. Rose, J. G. Severance; lone Valley: H.H. Carter, John C. Gear; Sutter Creek: A. Hayward; Volcano: H. Cook, J. T. Farley, G. L. Gale, N. Kline, James M. Porter, T. M. Pauling.

Physicians.—Butte City: Dr. Harris; Clinton: H. D. Longaker; Drytown: Dr. Fox; lone City: E. B. Harris, Austin D. Kibbie; Jackson: Dr. Boucher, A. "W. Crawford, M. Hoover, William Sharp; Sutter Creek: Dr. Fifleld, O. P. Southwell; Volcano:, Geo. Munckton, Dr. Paine.


This county, created by the Act of the Legislature, passed April 30, 1855, comprises that portion of Tulare County situated south of the township line, dividing townships number twenty and twenty-one south. This county is attached to the Thirteenth Judicial District; for election purposes, it forms part of the Sixth Senatorial District and with Tulare County, elect one member of the Assembly. The provisions of the Act organizing the county have been extended to the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine. (Act of the Legislature, March 3, 1858.)


COUNTY SEAT—OROVILIJB. Butte County, organized, 1850. Boundaries: North by Tehama, east by Plumas and Yuba, south by Tuba and Sutter, and west by the Sacramento River and Colusa.

Topography.—Tt is estimated that three-fifths of the land in this county abounds in mineral wealth. Throughout the mountain regions there are numerous valleys, mauy of which are in an advanced state of cultivation. About one-half of the county is well timbered, comprising the different varieties usually found in the mountainous districts of the State. Number of acres inclosed, twenty-five thousand, of which twelve thousand eight hundred and fifty-four are under cultivation.

Legal Distances.—Prom Sacramento, seventy-five miles; from Stockton, one hundred and twenty miles, and from San Quentin, two hundred and five miles.


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Fifteenth Judicial District.—Hon. Warren T. Sexton, Judge District Court. Sessions, third Monday in January, first Monday in May, fourth Monday in August and second Monday in November.

County Courts.—The terms of the County Court, first Monday in March and June, second Monday in September, and the fourth Monday in November. Court of Sessions: Second Monday in February, third Monday in April, July and October. Probate Court: Fourth Monday in February and May, third Monday in August and second Monday in December.

Fourteenth Senatorial District.—Senators: Hon. A S. Hart; term expires January, 1860, and Hon. S. A. Ballou; term expires January, 1861.

Members of Assembly.—Hons. Frank B. Cannon and Phillip P. Caine.

Agricultural Products.—Wheat, 2,497 acres, 52,536 bushels; barley, 3,981 acres, 68,220bushels; oats, 238 acres, 6,240 bushels; rye, 6 acres, 135 bushels; corn, 115 acres, 3,630 bushels; peas, 26 acres, 400 bushels; potatoes, 39 acres, 9,936 bushels; sweet potatoes, 1 acre, 440 bushels; hay, 1,620 acres, 1,799 tuns; butter, 21,456 pounds; wool, 10,300 pounds.

Fruit Trees, (1857.)—Apples, 9,865; peach, 66,775; pear, 2,341; plum, 676; cherry. 809; nectarine, 216; quince, 10,170; apricot, 737; fig, 1,102; orange, 6; pomegranate, 11; almond, 8. Vines: gooseberry, 440; raspberry, 149; strawberry, 107,519; currant, 4,000; grape-vines, (1858,) 80,707. The success which has attended the efforts of Major John Bidwell to develop the agricultural resources of this county, has established the fact of the adaptation of the soil and climate to the production of every variety of fruit which can be successfully cultivated in the State.

Live Stock.—Horses and mules, 2,126; asses, 98; calves under two years old, 6,378; cattle over two years old, 15,072; total number of cattle, 21,450; sheep and goats, 16,454; hogs, 8,603; poultry, (1857,) 13,964.

Manufactures.—Grist mills—2, water; total run of stone, 4; capacity, 125 barrels of flour per day. Cost of erection, $39,000. Saw mills, 17—steam, 7, water, 10. Cost of erection, $80,000; lumber sawed per annum, 3,020,000 feet; value, $500,000; tannery, 1.

Mineral Resources.—The larger part of the land of this county is what may be properly considered mineral land, which is in different localities very rich. There are a number of quartz leads which have yielded their owners remunerative returns. Quartz mills, 17—steam, 12, water, 5; stamps, 168; arastras, 30. Cost of machinery, $250,000.

River Mining.—The extensive works, auxiliary to mining in the vicinity of Oroville, afford abundant evidence of the prosperity of the mining population residing there. The following mining enterprises of the past summer, will convey some idea of the character and importance of the works alluded

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Number of feet, 16,700, at an aggregate cost of $500,000.

Coal and Marble.—An extensive bed of coal within a few miles of Feather Eiver is now being opened. The quality of the coal therefrom is represented to be excellent, and somewhat like the Cannel coaL A vein of marble has been discovered on the Middle Feather Kiver, which is of variegated colors, resembling to some extent the Italian.

Ditches and Canals.—Number of canals, 30; length, main branches, 150 miles. When the canals now in the course of construction are completed, there will be, including branches, 400 miles. Cost of construction, $800,000.

Water Works.—The city of Oroville is supplied with water from an extension reservoir in the vicinity of the city. Assessed,value, $7,000.

Bridges and Ferries.—Number of bridges, 1; assessed value, $25,000 Ferries, 8; assessed value, $8,000.

Finances, May 1, 1858.—Floating debt. $48,117 19, bearing interest at ten per cent.; cash in treasury, $3,833 22 ; actual debt, $44,283 97 ; receipts for the year ending May 1, 1858, $86,082 21; expenditures, same period, $88,464 74; amount of taxable property, 1858, $4,357,722. The January, 1858, payment to the State Treasury from Butte, amounted to $40,980 64, the third largest payment ever made by any county in the State, and the largest of any mining county, previous to that date.

Attorneys.—Chieo: J. "W. McCorkle, J. .B. Smith; Dogtown: Charles G. Hubbard; Forbestown: W. F. Buckelew; Oroville: S. B. Barker, J. M Burt, D. W. Cheesman, S. "W. W. Coughey, Seneca Ewer, M. H. Farley, H. C. Gaston, Lewis C. Granger, P. H. Harris, G. C. Harvey, J. G. Howard, J. J. Kline, G. W. Kretzinger, Joseph E. N. Lewis, Charles F. Lott, A. Maurice, Jr., W. H. Rhodes, Simon Rosenbaum, F. M. Smith, Thos. "Wells.

Physicians.—Bidwell: Wm. Wilson; Chico: J. B. Smith, Dr. Tilden; Dry Creek: Dr. Vance; Forbestown: W. P. Flint, A. B. Gallinger, D. "W. C. Willoughby; Hamilton: J. G. Moore; Lynchburg: T. J. Jenkins, H. D. Smedes; Oroville: J. R. N. Owen, J. Green, H. M. Phipps, M. Vrooman, J. S. Sheppard, F. H. Orendorf, J. O'Brien, T. A. Barber, W. C. Walden, E. Etheridge, J. Kane, J. Gilbert, L. Burwell, C. W. Kirchner, Dr. Egery, C. L. Swett; Mountain Springs: Dr. Burrit.



Calaveras County, organized 1850. Boundaries: North by Amador and El Dorado, east by Utah Territory, south by Tuolumne and west by San Joaquin and Amador.


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Topography.—This county, though one of the most productive mining regions of the State, is entitled to some consideration in an agricultural point of view. There is an abundance of timber, principally pine and spruce, interspersed with several varieties of the oak and a few cedar, also the "big trees," known as the Arbor Vitce. Numerous tracts of laud are in an advanced state of cultivation. Number of acres inclosed, twenty-one thousand two hundred and ninety-six; under cultivation, five thousand six hundred and forty-eight.

Legal Distances.—From Sacramento, sixty miles; from Stockton fifty miles and from San Quentin, one hundred and eighty miles.

Fifth Judicial District.—Hon. Charles M. Creaner, Judge District Court. Sessions, first Monday in February, June and October.

County Courts.—Terms of the County Court, Court of Sessions and Probate Court, first Monday January, April and July, and the third Monday of October. Special terms whenever necessary.

Nineteenth Senatorial District.—Senators: Hon. L. N. Ketcham, term expires January 1860, and Hon. B. T. Bradley; term expires January, 1861.

Members of Assembly.—Hons. C. E. Mount, C. W. Lightner and J. Burdick.

Agricultural Resources.— " The proverbial richness of the valleys with which this county abounds will give profitable employment and a ready market at the door of the husbandman for the abundant produce of the agriculturist and the horticulturist." Products: Wheat, 676 acres, 6,760 bushels; barley, 1,998 acres, 23,976 bushels; oats, 562 acres, 2,810 bushels; potatoes, 50 acres, 7,500 bushels; hay, 2,362 acres, 2,362 tuns.

Fruit Trees.—"A majority of the fruit is yet young, but sufficient has been gathered of several kinds, this year, to supply our own wants. The tropical fruits which have been experimentally tried, seem to have found a congenial climate and succeed beyond expectation." Number of trees: apple, 8,850; peach, 15,524; pear, 1,020; plum, 892; cherry, 732; nectarine, 674; quince, 530; apricot, 632; fig, 331; aloes, 14; citron, 34; lemon, 29; orange, 63; olive, 102; filbert, 42; walnut, 76; pomegranate, 146; prune, 21; almond, 228; gooseberries, 1,027; raspberries, 923; strawberries, 228,847; currants, 210; grapevines, 24,487.

Live Stock.—Horses, (American,) 385, (Spanish,) 960; mules, (American,) 130, (Spanish,) 203; asses, 72; cows, (American,) 1,965, (Spanish,) 345; calves, (American,) 1,771, (Spanish,) 243; beef and stock cattle, 2,618; oxen, (American,) 545; total number of cattle, 7,487; sheep, 4,588; goats, 170; hogs, 3,020; poultry, 25,285.

Manufactures.—Grist mills 1—steam, run of stone 2; saw mills 15—steam 9, water 6. Capacity, 96,000 feet of lumber per day. Cost of erection, $96,000. Assessed value of 11, $42,800. Iron founderies, 2; tannery, 1; breweries, 6; soda factories, 4.

Mineral Resources.—The principal and leading interest of this county are its mineral products, which continue in richness and stability. New discoveries are constantly being made which yield, in many instances, extraordinary amounts of gold. Considerable attention has been devoted, during the past season, to the development of the quartz resources, and a large number of mills have been erected which have paid, generally, fair returns. Quartz ,

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