Mineral Resources.—There is considerable mineral land in this county some of which is remarkably rich. If there was a sufficient supply of water to aid the miner in his operations, the yield of gold would be large. Nearly all the streams contain more or less gold.

Ditches and Canals.—Ditches,. 2, length, 9 miles. Cost, $35,000. One conducts the water from Indian Creek to Happy Camp, a distance of five miles, and the other the Klamath to Bunker Hill.

Finances, May, 1858.—Floating debt, including amount due Klamath County, $13,833. Receipts, since date of organization, $6,172. Expenditures, $14,444. Amount taxable property, $518,251.

Attorneys.—Crescent City: H. L. & L. M. Preston, John P. Haynes.

Physicians.—Dr. Bailey, Charles Desch, Dr. Grove, David Hoover, B. Ma-' son, Dr. Mellen, Ferdinand Metgradt,


COUNTY SEAT—PLACERVILLE. El Dorado County, organized 1850. Boundaries: North by Placer, east by Utah Territory, south by Amador and Calaveras, and west by Sacramento.


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Topography.—This county is one of the most important in the Stato, both in point of population and the extent and character of its resources. Its entire area may be regarded as mineral land, although there are innumerable small valleys throughout the mountain region, which are most admirably adapted for agricultural and grazing purposes, and which in productiveness are not excelled by those of any other portion of the State. The eastern section is mountainous, abounding with almost inexhaustible forests of the finest timber, principally sugar, pitch and spruce pines, with several varieties of the oak and ash. Lower, and near the Sacramento valley, there is an abundance

of timber for fuel, etc. Area of the county, two thousand two hundred and fifty square miles, of which sixteen hundred are mineral lands. Amount of land inclosed for agricultural purposes, twenty-two thousand one hundred and eighty acres; in cultivation, seven thousand one hundred and thirty.

Legal Distances.—From Sacramento, fifty miles; from Stockton, ninetyfive miles, and from San Quentin, one hundred and eighty miles.

Eleventh Judicial District.—Hon. B. F. Myres, District Judge. Sessions, second Monday in February and May, and third Monday in August and November.

Eighteenth Senatorial District.—Hons. S. F. Hamm and "W. B. Dickinson; term expires January, 1860, and Hons. A. St Clair Denver and I. Titus; term expires January, 1861.

Members of Assembly.—Hons. H. C. Sloss, A. Briggs, G. A. Douglass, "W. Coleman, G. N. Douglass, G. M. Condee, J. S. Tipton and 0. Squires.

Agricultural Resources.— Considerable attention has been paid recently to the agricultural and horticultural resources of the county. There is scarcely a valley of the area of half an acre that is not cultivated, and the results of past experience prove that the arid hills of the Sierra Nevada lose nothing by comparison with the productive vallies of the Genessee, or the rich bottom land of the Sacramento. Products: Wheat, 1,016 acres, 10,258 bushels; barley, 1,511 acres, 17,744 bushels; oats, 1,720 acres, 8,211 bushels; potatoes, 43 acres, 6,375 bushels; hay, 1,383 acres, 1,383 tuns; onions, 2 acres, 235 bushels; Chinese sugar cane, 3 acres; wool, 4,000 pounds.

Fruit Trees.—Apple, 64,226; peach, 47,014; pear, 4,785; plum, 1,382; cherry, 1,282; nectarine, 657 ; quince, 1,106; apricot, 607; fig, 282; orange, 23; almond, 106. Vines; Strawberry, 111.397; grape vines, 77,472. The climate and soil of this county are admirably adapted to the raising of fruit, and "the time is not far distant when El Dorado County, with her fine orchards and vineyards, will compare favorably with any other county in the State."

Manufacture of Wine.—Several hundred gallons of wine were manufactured from the product of'1858, and the quality thereof will compare favorably with that produced in the southern counties of the State.

Live Stock.—Horses, 1,002; mules, 324; asses, 104; cows, 2,120; calves, 1,821; oxen, 670; neat cattle, 450; stock cattle, 1,918. Total number of cattle, 6,979; sheep, 1,514; goats, 146; hogs, 1,817; poultry, 9,055.

Manufactures.—Grist mills, 2—water; total run of stone, 4; capacity per day, 75 barrels. Saw mills, 41—steam 24, water 17; number of saws, 45; amount oflumber per annum, 4,800,000 feet. Iron foundries, 2; tanneries, 2; breweries, 12; birek kilns, 5; lime kilns, 10; soda factories, 3.

Ice Trade.—There is a considerable business transacted with the neighboring counties with ice during the summer months, at rates which amply remunerate those engaged therein.

Mineral Resources.—There are few counties in this State that will equal El Dorado, in the extent, character and variety of its mineral resources. The mining interest never was more prosperous than at present; every ridge and flat in the county, almost, where prospecting has demonstrated the existence of gold to a paying extent, is supplied by water from the rivers by means of canals.

Quartz Mining.—The County Assessor, in referring to this branch of mining, says:

"That it now bids fair to become the most profitable, and eventually to employ more capital than any other in the county. The reaction from the prostrated condition into which this species of mining was thrown by the reverses of hundreds of our citizens, who engaged in it during the years 1851 and 1852, is now at its climax, and quartz mining is now pursued with an intelligent idea of results, divested of the wild spirit of extravagant adventure heretofore a fixture to the idea. Whether the enterprise will pay, is no longer a problem—already about one-eighth of the gold products of the county is taken from quartz."

Number of mills, 40—steam 18, water 22, aggregate of stamps, 311; arastras, 65. Cost of machinery, $300,000.

Placer Mining, etc.—The river, tunnel and surface diggings, says the Assessor of the county in his report for 1858, are paying fair wages—a number of them quite handsomely. New placers are almost daily being discovered and opened, which promise to last for many years, and amply repay their owners for their investments, enterprise and perseverance.

Silver and Copper.—A vein of copper, strongly impregnated with silver, in the vicinity of Hope Valley, is now being worked with every prospect of being remunerative to the owners. Veins of copper exist in other portions of the county, but as yet have attracted but little attention.

Marble and Lime.—There are two marble quarries which have produced some of the finest specimens of marble to be found in any country. This article has already become an important item in the business of the county. The different lime kilns are productive to the owners.

Ditches and Canals.—Ditches, 43; aggregate length, 1,150 miles; assessed value, $617,970. Cost of construction, $1,600,000.

Bridges and Tollrlioads.—Bridges, 16; assessed value, $60,000. Cost of construction, $128,000. Toll-roads, 7; miles, 47 ; assessed value, $10,400. Eevenue per month, $1,800.

Finances, January, 1858.—Floating debt, $38,316 42, bearing ten per cent, interest; cash in the treasury, $2,043 30; actual debt, $36,273 12; receipts for fiscal year ending December 31, 1857, $73,163 39. Expenditures, same period, $83,138 77; assessed value of property, $2,300,794 50.

Attorneys.—Coloma: Thomas Robertson, A. A. Van Guelder; El Dorado: George G. Blanchard, Moses Tebbs; Grizzly Flat: L. R. Hopkins; Placerville: R. M. Anderson, W. H. Brumfield, L. T. Carr, H. Doyle, W. A. George, G. D. Hall, S. J. K. Handy, Thomas H. Hewes, John Hume, S. M. Johnson, J. G. McCallum, D. K. Newell, L. A. Norton, C. B. Patterson, S. TV. Sanderson, M. K. Shearer; Salmon Falls: J. Ives Fitch.

Physicians.—Cold Springs: T. M. Shield; Coloma; J. M. Cruz, D. S. Smith, R. H. Taylor; Diamond Springs: S. P. Hamm, J. S. Sargent, Dr. Hinman; Fiddletown: W. A. Norman; Placerville: P. Chamberlin, A. Clark, Dr. Hay, 0. Harvey, A. Cook, M. Baker, H. "W. Johnson, J. W. Johnson, Dr. Runkler, Robert Rankin, J. S. Titus, H. Van Vleok and H. AV. A. "Worthen.



Fresno County, organized 1856. Boundaries: North by Merced and Mariposa, east by Utah Territory, south by Tulare and west by Monterey.

Topography.—This county was formed from> portions of Mariposa, Merced and Tulare, and contains that section of the mining region known as the extreme southern mines. The agricultural land in the county is situated in the vicinity of King's River, and is well adapted for agricultural purposes. There is considerable mineral land in this county but as yet little has been done towards its development in consequence of the want of water. The best of fine redwood and cedar exist in the greatest abundance. There are about twenty thousand acres of swamp land which is represented to-be, for grazing, as valuable as any in the State. Acres of land in cultivation, fifteen hundred.

Legal Distances.—From Sacramento, one hundred and ninety miles; from Stockton, one hundred and forty-five miles, and from San Quentin, two hundred and seventy-five miles.



Thirteenth Judicial District.—Hon. Nicholas Cleary, Judge District Court. Sessions: Third Monday in February, June and October.

Sixth Senatorial District.—Senator: Hon. S. A. Merritt; term expires January, 1861.

Member of Assembly.—Hon. J. M. Roane. . Agricultural Products.—Wheat, 250 acres, 5,000 bushels; barley, 1,000 acres, 20,000 bushels; corn, 100 acres, 3,000 bushels; potatoes, 10 acres, 1,000 bushels; sweet potatoes, 4 acres, 1,000 bushels; hay, 400 tuns; wool, 4,000 pounds.

Fruit Trees.—Apple, 100; peach, 500; pear, 60; cherry, 20. Vines: Strawberry, 500; grape, 3,000.

Live Stock.—Horses, (American) 50, (Spanish, tame) 800, (Spanish, wild) 350—total number of horses, 1,200; mules, 119; asses 50; stock cattle, 12,000; beef cattle, 3,650—total number of cattle, 15,650; sheep, 5,000; goats, 200; hogs, 1,084; poultry, 3,200.

Indian Reservations*—Fresno and Kings River farms are established in this county. They consist of two thousand acres, of which six hundred are under cultivation. Number of Indians located thereon, twenty-five hundred and fifty-five.

Manufactures.—Saw mills, 2; valued at $8,000; lumber sawed, per day, 2,000 feet. » Ferries.—Number, 6; assessed value, $12,000.

Mineral Resources.—" The mineral lands of this county would pay remunerative wages if there was a supply of water. The same remark will apply to the veins of quartz in different localities, some of which have been prospected to great advantage."

Finances, July, 1858.—Floating debt, $7,000; cash in treasury, $1,000; actual debt, $6,000. Receipts for fiscal year, $7,000. Expenditures, same period, $9,000. Amount of taxable property, $664,520.

Attorneys.—Millerton: O. il. Brown, H. Clark.

P hysicians.—None.



Humboldt County, organized 1853. Boundaries: North by Klamath, east by Trinity, south by Mendocino, and west by the Pacific.

Topography.—This county is estimated to contain an area of three hundred square miles, a large portion of which, about four or five hundred thousand acres, in equal proportions, is adapted to agricultural and grazing purposes. This land chiefly lies in the vicinity of the bay; on Eel River and its tributaries, on the Mattoll, in the south, and the bald hills of the central and eastern part of the county. Swamp and overflowed land purchased from the State, about two thousand acres; under cultivation, about four thousand one hundred and fifty acres. The lands which are settled upon and improved, are of excellent quality, producing grains and esculents in great abundance and variety. Bordering on the bay, the country is principally covered with timber, and of excellent quality, consisting of redwood, pine and spruce. This is probably the best, as well as the most extensive, lumbering district in the State.

* For a more complete description, see p. 134.

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