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ceeding five feet six inches in hight. There are probably left in the country, at present, of all these Indians, not more than two hundred souls, young and old, male and female—the most of whom live on ranchos with the owners of land, or hang around the neighborhood of the old missions. The same missions—or the county—contained 3.261 Indians in 1802: in 1845 they had decreased to 1,828 souls. In 1191 the only two missions within the present county boundaries, San Antonio and Carmelo, contained 3,593 horn cattle and 2,913 sheep. In 1831, the priests of these missions reported to the Government of Mexico that they had—cattle, 20,719; horses. 3,000; sheep, 27,775. The old settlers say, however, that they had four times the number of stock at the time, but were afraid of the government officials of Mexico."
Agricultural Products.—Wheat, 2,861 acres, 28,610 bushels; barley, 2,544 acres, 76,428 bushels; oats, 65 acres, 3,900 bushels; corn, 43 acres, 430 bushels; buckwheat, 40 acres, 400 bushels; beans, 300 acres, 6,000 bushels; potatoes, 980 acres, 245,000 bushels; hay, 2,687 acres, 4,030 tuns; butter, 20,000 pounds; cheese, 30,000 pounds; eggs, 3,000 dozen;
Fruit Trees.—Apple, 1,204; peach, 775; pear, 1,243; cherry, 91; plum, 113; apricot, 33; quince, 20; fig, 30; olive, 60; almond, 40; walnut, 20; nectarine, 5; strawberry vines, 25,000; grapevines, 50,000.
At the mission of San Juan there is a fine orchard of pear and apple trees. The orchard at the mission of Carmelo contains a number of pear trees, in fine bearing condition. In San Antonio there are several huertas, or gardens, containing many varieties of tropical fruits, such as apricots, figs, olives, pomegranates, etc., besides grapes, quinces, apples and pears. In Soledad there is a vineyard, containing about six thousand grape vines, which bear abundantly.
Live Stock.—Horses, (American,) 231, (Spanish, tame,) 2 283; (Spanish, wild,) 3,711, Half-breeds,) 130—total number of horses, 6,355; mules, 255; asses, 27; cows, (American,) 1,096, (Spanish, tame,) 2,675, (Half-breeds,) 264; calves, 2,300; stock cattle, (American,) 1,342, (Spanish,) 41,726, (Halfbreed,) 1,380; oxen, (American,) 108, (Spanish.) 353—total number of cattle, 51,244; sheep, (American,) 31,220, (Spanish,) 43,119—total number of sheep, 74,339; goats, 400; hogs, 1,609; poultry, 7,166.
Wool.—The product of this county, for 1858, amounts to 190,000 pounds, mostly of a superior quality of French and Spanish Merinos, crossed with the American and Spanish breeds. The wool trade is evidently destined, and at no distant period, to be the great wealth of this county, as the climate and lands are admirably adapted to sheep raising, and a number of the residents are devoting considerable attention to the increase and improvement of their stock.
Manufactories.—Saw mills, 1—steam ; capacity per day, 20,000 feet; cost of construction, $10,000. The lumber from this mill is said to be superior for street planking and bridging, being tough and durable; it sells readily and commands the highest prices.
Ferries and Roads.—Ferries, 3; value, $3,500; roads, 1. The turnpike road through the Pacheco Pass is four miles in length, and is one of the most traveled thoroughfares in the State; cost of construction, $5,000.
Mineral Resources.—The mineral resources of the county are important. Silver, copper and lead exist in several localities. The "Aurora" quicksilver mine situated in this county is now being worked with every indication of yielding handsome returns to its proprietors.
Granite.—The granite quarry at Carmelo has yielded large quantities of stone, which has been principally used in the construction of the Government Works at San Francisco Bay. Number of men employed, 20.
Wltale Fisheries*—There are three different companies engaged in the whale fisheries at Monterey Bay and vicinity. Number of men employed, 40.
Finances, May 1, 1858.—Funded debt, $54,291 33, seven per cent.; cash in treasury, $6,817 86; actual debt, $41,473 47; receipts for past fiscal year, $11,957 16; expenditures, Bame period, $8,183 22; amount of taxable property, $1,143,634.
Attorneys.—Monterey: D. R. Ashley, H. G. Blankman, D. S. Gregory, Josiah Merritt, John Burke Phillips, James A. "Watson; San Juan: Geo. W. Crane, B. F. Dennison.
Physicians.—Monterey: J. B. Callaghan, H. G. Canfield, W. H. McKee, Ignacio Olarte; San Juan: J. A. McDougall, W. Strong, James Webb.
XIX. —NAPA COUNTY.
COUNTY SEAT—NAPA CITY. Napa County, organized, 1850. Boundaries: North by Mendocino, by Solano, south by bay of San Pablo and wett by Sonoma.
Topography.—The advantages possessed by this county as an agricultural district are not surpassed by any other in the State. The soil and climate are well adapted to the cultivation of almost every description of agricultural produce and the different varieties of fruit. The number of acres assessed two hundred and fifty-six thousand eight hundred and twenty; nearly all of * For a description of the operations of these companies, see p. 286.
which are adapted for agricultural or grazing purposes. In cultivation, thirty-six thousand six hundred and sixty acres.
Legal Distances.—Prom Sacramento, sixty miles; from Stockton, one hundred miles, and from San Quentin, fifty-five miles.
Seventh Judicial District.—Hon. Edward W. McKinstry, Judge District Court. Sessions, first Monday in February, June and October.
County Courts.—Terms County Court: Second Monday in March and July, and first Monday in November. Probate Court: Third Monday in March and July, and second Monday in November. Court of Sessions: First Monday in April, August and December.
Tenth Senvtorial District.—Senator: Hon. H. Griffith; term expires January, 1860.
Member of Assembly.—Hon. W. B. Matthews.
Agricultural Resources.—This county is progressing rapidly in all the elements of agricultural prosperity. With a soil and climate unsurpassed, it is destined to take rank with the first agricultural districts of this State. Products: "Wheat, 16,000 acres, 500.000 bushels; barley, 5,000 acres, 150,000 bushels; oats, 2,000 acres, 50,000 bushels; corn, 2.000 acres, 50,000 bushels; peas, 100 acres, 2.500 bushels; beans, 50 acres, 1,000 bushels; potatoes, 300 acres, 15,000 bushels; onions, 20 acres, 4,000 bushels; hay, 5,000 acres, 5,000 tuns; broom corn, 40 acres, 125,000 pounds; butter, 125,000 pounds; cheese, 25,000 pounds.
Fruit Culture.—Every variety of fruit flourishes well. Some of the finest specimens produced last season, were from this county. Fruit Trees: Apple, 35,000; peach, 35,000; pear, 2,000; plum, 1,300; cherry, 1,817; nectarine, 2,000; quince, 500; apricot, 1,800; fig, 200; aloe, 40; lemon, 50; orange, 35; almond, 50; walnut, 38; strawberry vines, 100,000.
Manufacture of Wine.—The grape is extensively cultivated. The soil and climate appear well adapted for the different varieties. Number of vines, 90,000. Wine manufactured in 1858, 1,000 gallons.
Livestock.—Horses, (American,) 800; (Spanish, tame,) 1,200; (Spanish, wild.) 2,800—total number of horses, 4,800; mules, 600; asses, 12; cows, 12,950; calves, 8.000; stock cattle, (yearlings,) 1,421; beef cattle, 3,000; oxen, 1,000—total number of cattle, 32,311; sheep, 11,515; goats, 100; hogs, 9,275; poultry, 60,000
Manufactures.—Grist mills, 5—water, 3, steam, 2; total run of stone, 10; cost of erection, $75,000; saw mills, 6—water, 4, steam, 2; cost of erection, $20,000.
Mineral Resources.—There are numerous mineral springs. The White Sulphur Springs, eighteen miles, and the Soda Springs, six miles from Napa City, are celebrated for their powerful medicinal qualities. They are annually visited by a large number of people from every section of the State.
Borax*—The Borax Lake, recently discovered, is a valuable addition to * For a description of the Borax Lake, see p. 273.