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the wealth of this county, and is now yielding considerable quantities of this mineral.
Glass Mountain.—The mountain of glass, discovered in 1857, is situated a few miles from Napa City. The material of which the mountain is formed, possesses, apparently, all the characteristics of glass, and it is said, can be made available for the manufacture of that article. TJp to the present time, no machinery has been erected to test its practical value.
Finances, May, 1858.—Funded debt, $23,00", ten per cent, interest; floating, $10,000 ; total debt, $33,000. Receipts for past fiscal year, $12,000; expenditures same period, $15,000. Assessed value of property, $3,015,911.
Attorneys.—Napa City: Richard Dudding, Ilenry Edgerton, C. Hartson, E. D. Hopkins, Johnson Horrell, C. W. Langdon, J. D. Lillard, J. E. Pond, A. Thomas, G. W. Towle; St. Helena: J. W. Smith.
Physicians.—Napa City: E. B. Eaton, Harvey Johnson, D. K. Rule, W. "W. Stillwagon; St. Helena: J. T. Brown, L. G. Lillie, O. P. Stoll; Yountville: J. E. Mathews.
XX. —NEVADA COUNTY.
Nevada County, organized 1851. Boundaries: North by Yuba and Sierra east by Utah Territory, south by Placer and west by Sutter.
Topography.—The principal part of this county is mountainous and covered with extensive forests of pine, oak, buckeye, sycamore, maple, fir, alder, spruce, cedar, etc. The staples are gold and lumber, though there are considerable quantities of grain, vegetables, etc. produced upon the lands in the valleys and flats which yield abundantly. The extensive veins of quartz which abound in different sections, have yielded large sums of gold, and the extensive placer diggings are not excelled in richness by those of any other district in the State. The area of the county is estimated at one thousand square miles, of which five hundred and sixty-three are mineral lands. The amount of land claimed for agricultural purposes, is forty-five thousand three hundred acres; under cultivation, twenty-eight thousand acres.
Legal Distances.—From Sacramento, sixty-five miles; from Stockton, one hundred and twenty-five miles, and from San Quentink one hundred and ninety-five miles.
Fourteenth Judicial District.—Hon. Niles Searls, Judge District Court. Sessions, third Monday in May, first Monday in August and October and second Monday in December.
Sixteenth Senatorial District.—Senators: E. F. Burton; term expires January, 1860, and C. J. Lansing; term expires January, 1861.
Members of Assembly.—Messrs. P. Moore, J. Caldwell, W. E. Armstrong, C. Cahalan, G. A. Young.
Agricultural Resources.—The agricultrual portion of the land of this county consists principally of the small valleys of the mountainous districts, the soil of which is well adapted to agricultural purposes.
Products.—Wheat, 4,500 acres, 112,000 bushels; barley, 6,500 acres, 260,000 bushels; oats, 1,400 acres, 56,000 bushels; vegetables, 10,000 acres.
Cultivation of Fruit.—There is probably no portion of the State that grows finer grapes than are raised in this county, indeed every description of fruit thrives well.
Fruit Trees— Apple, 20,000; peach, 300,000; pear, 1,500; plum, 500; cherry, 500, and some quince and nectarine; strawberry vines, 10 acres; grape vines, 8,000. From one acre of 100 vines, over 21,000 pounds of grapes were produced in 1858.
Line Stock.—Horses, 936; neat cattle, 2,608; mules, 240; hogs, 1,913; sheep, 400.
Manufactures.—Grist mills, 3—steam; run of stone, 6; capacity per day, 225 barrels. Cost of construction, $20,000. Saw mills, 42—steam 26, water 20; aggregate of saws, 100; lumber sawed per annum, 39,810,000 feet. Foundries, 2; tanneries, 3; breweries, 7.
Bridges and Roads.—Bridges, 9; roads, 21.
Mineral Resources.—The amount of mineral land in this county is estimated at one-half of its entire area. Mining is carried on in every section, and instead of being on the decline each successive year, it develops new and important resources. Several of the richest and most productive quartz leads are located here, and the energy and enterprise exhibited in the working of the placer mines, are not excelled by any other district in the State. Quartz mills,* 29—steam 22, water 1; aggregate of stamps, 311; quartz crushed annually, 428,690 tuns; arastras, 36. Cost of machinery, $500,000.
Water Ditches and Canals.—Number of ditches, 86; aggregate length, 696 miles. Cost of construction, $1,100,000; assessed value, $953,100.
Finances, February 5, 1858.—Amount of Court-House Bonds, $22,500, at 12 per cent.; floating debt, $112,116. Total $134,616. Receipts, since
* For ft description of the quartz operations of Nevada, see p. 261. July 19, 1856, $83,216; expenditures, same period, $113,412. A special tax is levied on the property of the county tor the liquidation of the county debt. Amount of taxable property, $4,301,993.
Attorneys.—Grass Valley: A. B. Dibble, C. J. Lansing; Nevada: David Belden, S. Bucknej, J. J. Caldwell, S. H. Chase, James Churchman, J. T. Crenshaw, F. J. Dunn, G. S. Happ, C. W. Hill, J. R. McConnell, T. B. McFarland, Henry Meredith, A. A. Sargent; Orleans Flat: R. B. Moyes; Rough and Ready: E. W. Roberts.
Physicians.—Brooklyn: D. A. Crane; Cherokee: J. Clark, R. C. Wyatt; French Corral: Dr. Dustin; Grass Valley: Worth Bloomfleld, Mark Emerson, W. J. McCormick, Dr. Shoemaker, E. A. Tompkins; Nevada: F. E. Bailey, Dr. Clebourne, L. S. Cummings, H. Featherstone, R. M. Hunt, W. J. Knox, C. T. Overton, A. Trautman, H. H. Wicks; Omega: D. C. Teeple, J. Teeple; Orleans Flat: W. G. Alban, B. S. Old; Rough and Ready : L. A. Crabtree; San Juan: Dr. Colbourne, W. Randall; White Cloud: E. Ballou.
Placer County, organized, 1851. Boundaries: North by Nevada, east by Utah Territory, south by Sacramento and El Dorado and west by Yolo and Sutter.
Topography.—A large extent of the land in this county is well adapted for agricultural purposes. That portion adjacent to Sutter is almost exclusively agricultural and grazing lands, upon which are located a number of the most productive farms of this section of the State. There is an abundance of every description of timber throughout the county. This county also contains a large amount of rich mineral land, about one-half of its entire area, which is annually producing a yield of gold exceeded but by few counties of the State. Number of acres claimed and located, six hundred thousand; inclosed, one hundred and twenty thousand ; under cultivation, eighteen thousand.
Legal Distances.—From Sacramento, thirty-five miles; from Stockton, eighty miles, and from San Quentin, one hundred and sixty-five miles.
Eleventh Judicial District — Hon. B. F. Myres, Judge of the District Court. Sessions, second Monday in January, April and July, and third Monday in October.
County Courts.—Terms of the County Court: Second Monday February, May, August and November. Court of Sessions and Probate Court, as provided by the general law relating to the terms of said courts.
Fourteenth Senatorial District.—Senators: Hon. J. H. Baker; term expires January, I860,, and Hon. J. Anderson; term expires January, 1861.
Members of Assembly.—Hons. W. C. Stratton, W. P. Barclay, Phillip Lynch and W. P. Wing.
Agricultural Products.—Wheat, 5,500 acres, 108,000 bushels; barley, 5,000 acres, 100,000 bushels; oats, 400 acres—cut for hay. There are a number of small tracts of land throughout the county, cultivated for gardening purposes, which produce an abundant supply of vegetables for home consumption.
Fruit Trees, (1857).—Apple, 2,800; peach, 6,166; pear, 298; plum, 375; cherry, 88; apricot, 39; nectarine, 20 ; quince, 1,080. Vines* Currant, 351; gooseberry, 116; raspberry, 290; strawberry, 20,000; grape-vines, (1858,) 5,000. The soil and climate of this county are well adapted to the cultivation of fruit, especially the peach, which appears to thrive remarkably well. With ordinary care they grow luxuriantly, and attain a size and flavor unsurpassed by those of any other fruit district in the State.
Live Stock.—Horses, 900; mules and asses, 373; cattle, 4,353; sheep, 3,835; goats, 86; hogs, 4,763; poultry, 8,924.
Manufactures.—Grist mills, 2—water 1, steam 1 ; total run of stone, 6. Cost of construction, $16,000. Saw mills, 23—steam 11, water 12. Lumber sawed per annum, 35,000,000 feet; assessed value of mills, $58,400.
Lumber.—The resources of this county for the supply of timber are almost inexhaustible, and the annual sales of lumber form an important item. "The value of rough lumber at the mills is estimated to average about $20 per thousand feet, which amounts in the aggregate to $250,000. There is no business in the county, except mining, which affords more employment than this. The wood chopper, the sawyer and teamster, each find steady and permanent employment at these numerous mills."
Mineral Resources.—" The mines of this county have proved as productive as ever during the past year, and river mining, on the average, more so. The hill tunnels are still being pushed forward, day and night, with great perseverance. In several localities the miner has reached the richest pay in this class of diggings. It can be safely estimated that Placer County has furnished $7,000,000 of the gold product of the last year. Quartz mills, 17— steam 11, water 6; aggregate of stamps, 144; arastras, 34. Cost of machinery, $170,000. "The quartz interest is in a very healthy condition. During the past season many valuable quartz leads have been discovered, and many new mills erected, which as a general thing, have paid remarkably well."
Iron Ore.—Large quantities of this ore are found on the surface of the earth in the vicinity of Green Valley, near Auburn. This is an important accession to the mineral resources of the State.
Marble.—There are several extensive beds of marble in the vicinity of Dry Creek and Green Valley.
Canals and Water Ditches.—Number of canals, 35; aggregate length, 550 miles; cost of construction, $1,550,000; assessed value, $283,160.
Town Water Works.—Auburn and Iowa Hill are supplied with water by private enterprise.
Bridges and Turnpike Foods.—Turnpike roads and bridges, 8; cost of construction, $125,000; assessed value, $60,000; bridges, 9; assessed value, $14,600.
Lake Bigler*—This beautiful lake is situated in a valley of the Sierra Nevada, at the eastern base of the central ridge, near Carson Valley. Its elevation is 5,800 feet above the level of the sea, and about 1,500 feet above Carson Valley, by which it is divided by a mountain ridge three to four miles wide. The 120th meridian of west longitude divides the lake pretty equally, giving its western shore to California and its eastern to Utah. Its northern extremity is only known by report, which is still so contradictory that the length of the lake cannot be set down with anything like accuracy. It can hardly exceed, however, twenty miles in length by about six in breadth; notwithstanding it has been called forty, and even sixty miles long.
The surrounding mountains rise from one to three, and, perhaps, in some cases, four thousand feet above the surface of the lake. They are principally composed of friable white granite, water-worn to that degree that although they are rough, and often covered with rocks and boulders, yet they show no clift's or precipices. Their bases, of granite sand, rise in majestic curves from the plain of the valley to their steeper flanks. Many of the smaller hills are but high heaps of boulders, the stony skeletons decaying in situ, half buried in their granite debris. There is no lake in this State which for beauty and variety of scenery will compare with Bigler Lake, and to those who have not seen it, a visit there will be productive of both pleasure and information.
Finances, May, 1858.—Floating debt, $82,327, ten per cent., if registered; assets, $5,343 91; actual debt, $70,983 09. Receipts for past fiscal year, $69,871 38; expenditures, same period, $65,274 06; assessed value of property, $2,787,473, to be increased by supplementary roll.
Attorneys.—Auburn: Geo. Anderson, James Anderson, J. C. Ball, James E. Hale, H B. Hawkins, F. B. Higgins, C. J. & E. W. Hillyer, W. A. Johnson. M.
* Condensed from Hutching's Magazine, August, 1857.