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Plumas County, organized. 1854. Boundaries: North by Shasta, east by Utah Territory, south by Sierra and Yuba and west by Butte.

Topography.—The general surface of this county presents a high, rugged and broken appearance, but it is relieved by many rich and pleasant valleys, varying in altitude, which contain extensive tracts of land well adapted for agricultural purposes. There is an extensive range for stock, and an abundance of timber to be found throughout the mountainous regions. The area of the county is estimated at four thousand square miles. Land claimed for agricultural purposes, seventeen thousand four hundred and twenty acres. Under cultivation, four thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven acres.

Legal Distances.—From Sacramento, one hundred and forty-five miles; from Stockton, one hundred and ninety miles, and from San Quentin, two hundred and seventy-five miles.


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Fifteenth Judicial District.—Hon. Warren T. Sexton, Judge District Court. Sessions, second Monday in April, July and October.

County Courts.—The terms of the County Court and Court of Sessions: On first Monday of January, May and September. Probate Court: Fourth Monday of each month.

Fourteenth Senatorial District.—Senators: Hon. A. S. Hart; term expires January. 1860, and Hon. S. A. Ballou; term expires January, 1861. Member of Assembly.—Hon. T. B. Shannon.

Agricultural Products— Wheat, 3,080 acres, 49,200 bushels; barley, 290 acres, 5,800 bushels; oats, 102 acres, 17,500 bushels; corn, 36 acres, 1,000 bushels; peas, 18 acres; beans, 16 acres; potatoes, 208 acres, 16,000 bushels; hay, 2,000 acres, 2,000 tuns.

Fruit Trees.—Apple, 155; peach, 5,840; walnut, 2; grape-vines, 1,195.

Live Stock.—Horses, 303; mules, 460; asses, 36; cows, 1,333; calves, 1,120; stock cattle, 1,196; beef cattle, 1,058; oxen, 410. Total number of cattle, 5,117; hogs, 619.

Manufactures.—Grist mills, 2—water; run of stone, 4; assessed value, $20,000. Saw mills, 28—steam 2, water 26. Lumber sawed per annum, 20,000,000 feet. Breweries, 2; tannery, 1; brick kilns, 2; lime kilns, 2.

Mineral Resources.—" The mineral resources of this county are extensive and permanent in their character. The placer diggings are rich and productive, and the operations in quartz are not only on the increase, but entered into with energy and confidence by those who have heretofore refused to embark in that description of mining." Quartz mills, 8—steam 4, water 4; total number of stamps, 18, with 10 sets Chile rollers. Cost of machinery, $100,000.

Marble and Lime.—There is a vein of marble of considerable extent, on the Middle Branch of Feather River, the quality of which is very superior. It is of a variegated character and susceptible of the highest polish. There is an abundance of lime stone scattered throughout the county.

Coal.—There is an extensive vein of superior coal in Indian Valley, which is represented to be of an excellent quality and well adapted for domestic purposes.

Mineral Springs.—There are numerous mineral springs throughout the county, viz: sulphur, chalybeate and soda. There are also springs on American and Indian streams, which hold the carbonate of lime in solution—crystalize very rapidly, and in the space of six months will petrify pieces of any ordinary wood; the deposition (travertin) from one cluster covers ten acres, and is probably fifty feet deep. There is a large boiling spring near the Bhore of Honey Lake; the water of this lake is partially impregnated with alkaline matter. Some specimens of a bright whitish oro (supposed to be cinnabar) are found eight miles east of Indian Valley, where it is said to be abundant.

Bridges and Ferries.—Number of bridges, 4; ferries, 1. Turnpike Roads.—Number of roads, 2 ; length, 40 miles. Cost of construction, $20,000.

Finances, July, 1858.—Floating debt, $14,000. Receipts for fiscal year,

$12,000; expenditures, same period, $15,000. Assessed value of property, $1,072,928.

Attorneys.—Quiney: Robert J. Barnett, Thomas Cox, P. O. Handly, Thos. E. Hayden, B. T. Hogan, Woodbury D. Sawyer.

Physicians.—Elizabethtown: Lafayette Cate; Quincy: John S.Vaughn; Smith's Bar; S. P. Bolby.



Sacramento County, organized 1850. Boundaries: North by Placer, east by El Dorado, south by Amador and west by Sacramento River.

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Topography.—"It is a demonstrated fact, that nearly all the land in Sacramento County is well adapted to agriculture—some portions to tillage and others to grazing, each being conveniently distributed throughout the county. Those portions best adapted to tillage are located in the valleys of the rivers and creeks, and are mostly claimed and occupied by settlers. The prairies and highlands are more peculiarly adapted to grazing, though some portions are successfully tilled; they afford much pasture, rendering it a favorite resort for herdsmen from other counties in feeding their stock preparatory to marketing.

* City and County consolidated, May, 1858.

T Ex offirio Mayor and Superintendent of Water Works.

t Jsb officio City and County Auditor, salary, $3,000.

The eastern portion of the county (varying in extent from two to six miles,) contains many rich deposits of gold, which, on account of its relative location and other peculiar facilities, are being rapidly developed. This county is sparsely timbered, though sufficient for all ordinary purposes, except building. The timber is principally oak, and is located in the vicinity of streams and on the foot hills on its eastern border."

There is a large amount of swamp and overflowed lands situated on the banks of the Sacramento River, which is covered by an extensive growth of oak, heavy sycamore and Cottonwood. Area of the county, nearly six hundred thousand acres; under cultivation, fifty-five thousand one hundred and twenty-eight acres.

Legal Distances.—From Stockton, forty-five miles, and from San Quentin, one hundred and thirty miles.

Sixth Judicial District. — Hon. J. H. McKune, Judge District Court; sessions, first Monday in February, April, June, August, October and December.

County Courts.—The terms of the County Court: First Monday in March, June, September and December. Court of Sessions: First Monday in January, April, July and October. Probate Court: Fourth Monday of each month.

Ninth Senatorial District.—Senators: Hon. J. Price; term expires January, I860, and Hon. J. M. McDonald; term expires January, 1861.

Members of Assembly.—Hons. R. B. Ellis, J. E. Sheridan, A. R. Jackson and Charles Duncombe.

Agricultural Resources.—" The land in this county is generally adapted to agricultural purposes, especially that portion lying adjacent to the water courses, over which none in the State can claim superiority." Products: Wheat, 9,628 acres, 171,340 bushels; barley, 21,430 acres, 516,782 bushels; oats, 1,680 acres, 41,420 bushels; rye, 3 acres; corn, 197 acres, 6,600 bushels; hay, 10,391 acres, 12,020 tuns; peas, 40 acres, 1,600 bushels; potatoes, 831 acres, 191,300 bushels; potatoes, sweet, 37,200 bushels; onions, 200 acres, 33,186 bushels; broom corn, 80 acres; wool, 33,370 pounds; butter, 281,600 pounds; cheese, 90,000 pounds; eggs, 120,826 dozen. No attention has been paid during last year to the cultivation ot hemp, tobacco and cotton, though from experiments of former seasons there is scarcely a doubt but what each would thrive well.

Cultivation of Fruit.—The soil and climate are admirably adapted to the culture of every description of fruit. Considerable attention is being paid to the subject, and during the past year the number of trees has increased over fifty per cent. Fruit trees: Apple, 132,514; peach, 213,658; pear, 42,836; plum, 27,580; cherry, 30,072; nectarine. 16,912; quince, 28,200; apricot, 16,550; fig, 5,946; lemon, 259: orange, 282; olive, 3,187; prune, 4,560; pecan, 198; almond, 2,500; walnut, 4,655; filbert, 6; gooseberry, 4,040; raspberry, 12,920; strawberry, 304,345; grape, 327,900. "Wine manufactured, 170 gallons; total value of fruit raised, $121,000.

Live Stock.*—The grazing lands cover a large area, and afford superior facilities for the raising of stock. In the months of June and July, when there is a scarcity of grass in the southern counties, large bands of cattle are driven into this county. Number of horses, (American,) 4,836, (Spanish,) 7,513—total, 12,349; mules, 1,718; asses, 6; stock cattle, 17,649; cows, 9,513; calves, 6,217; oxen, 2,138; beef cattle, 2,445—total number of cattle, 37,962; sheep, 23,056; goats, 998; swine, 8,099; poultry, 52 931.

Manufactures.—Grist mills, 8—steam, 7; water, 1; aggregate run of stone, 24; capacity, 1,000 barrels per day; cost of construction, $125,000; assessed value, $47,000; sawmills, 2—steam; lumber sawed per annum, 2,000,000 feet; machine shops, 3; foundries, 3; broom factory, 1; glue factory, 1; soap and candle factories, 2; wagon factories, 38; potteries, 2; breweries, 6; soda factories, 3; brick kilns, 9.

Toll-Bridges and Ferries.—Number of licensed bridges, 10; ferries, 11; capital invested, $97,000. The principal bridges are: The Sacramento and Yolo Bridge, the longest in the State; length, 800 feet; width, 28 feet; hight, 35 feet; cost, $60,000. Wire Suspension Bridge, Mormon Island; over South Fork of American River; length, 180 feet; cost, $12,500. American Bridge; over American River, built in 1851; length, 620 feet; double track; elevation above low water mark, 27 feet; cost, $32,000; owners, Harris & Pearis. "Wire Suspension Bridge, "Daylor's Ranch;" over Cosumnes River; length, 200 feet; cost, $15,000; owner, R. D. Wilson. Folsom and Russville Bridge, American River; termination of the Sacramento Valley Railroad, rebuilt in 1857; length, 210 feet; elevation above low water mark, 44 feet; cost, $20,000; owners, Kinsey & Thompson.

Fisheries.—The fisheries of the Sacramento afford employment for five months of the year to about three hundred persons. Amount of capital, $50,000.f

Sacramento Valley Bail Road.\—This road extends from Sacramento 'to Folsom, a distance of 22 miles; cost ef construction, $1,200,00.0.

Gas Works.—Established 1855; cost of construction, $250,000; gas manufactured per annum, 7,183,000 feet; length of pipe laid, four miles.

City Water Works—Established 1855; main pipe laid, 1858, 36,778 feet; cost of works, $300,000. These works have been in successful operation for nearly four years. They are of a capacity amply sufficient to furnish an abundant supply of water for years to come.

Mineral Resources.—From the junction of the east line of the county with the South Fork of the American River, southerly to a point four or five miles south of Michigan Bar, with a width varying from four to eight miles, are situated the mineral lands. Though not so rich as the northern placers, they yield steadily and afford employment to an average of one thousand miners; the yield of the county is estimated at $2,000,000 annually. Quartz mills: There is but 1 quartz mill, propelled by steam, with 5 stamps; cost of erec

* The Assessor's returns of stock, lg58, received since the table on p. 246 was printed.

t For a description of these fisheries, see p. 286. $ For a description of this road, see p. 160.

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