tion, $9,500. There are several arastraa employed with profit to their owners.

Canals and Ditches.—Number of ditches, 11; aggregate length, 163 miles; length of branches, 177 miles; cost of erection, $800,000. These artificial water courses afford an abundant supply of water to the mineral region for ten months of the year.

Granite.—The extensive quarries situated near Folsom are now being worked extensively, and afford employment to a large number of persons.

Finances, June 1, 1858.—Bonds, 1853, seven per cent., $855,00; bonds, 1854, ten per cent, $90,691 14; bonds, 1855, ten per cent., $177,709 88; bonds, 1857, ten percent. $45,225 07; warrants outstanding, $257,609 97; interest due, $34,175 77—total, $606,266 83; cash in treasury, $4,232 20; actual debt, $602,034 63; valuation of property, $12,085,545 71.

Attorneys.—Folsom: G. M. Cole, C. G. W. French, P. J. Hopper, F. S. Mumford; Sacramento City: J. L. Algeo, B. F. Ankeny, H. O. Beatty, H. T. Boeram, Charles T. Botts, George W. Bowie, George Cadwallader, W. R. Cantwell, Geo. H. Cartter, A. P. Catlin, Rob't C. Clark, Rob't Clyde, Cornelius Cole, Thos. Conger, E. B. Crocker, Sam'l Cross, N. Greene Curtis, Presley Dunlap, Philip L. Edwards, James L. English, C. C. Finkler, Ferris Forman, John H. Gass, James C. Goods, Humphrey Griffith, Jas. H. Hardy, J. P. Hardy, Henry Hare Hartley. E. H. Heacock, John Heard, L. Hermance, A. P. Hereford, Frank Hereford, John G. Hyer, C. A. Johnson, W. R. Keithley, Wm. S. Long, John H. McKune, Washington Meeks, G. R. Moore, R. F. Morrison, H. H. O'Callagan, Jas. H. Ralston, P. W". S. Rayle, Tod Robinson, Rob't Robinson, Charles C. Sackett, Lewis Sanders, Jr., Horace Smith, Henry Starr, Thos. Sunderland, Frank F. Taylor, W. C. Wallace, W. H. Weeks, D. W. Welty, B. C. Whiting, Joseph W. Winans, James C. Zabriskie.

Physicians.—Cosumnes: Charles Duncombe; Folsom: A. C. Donaldson, Dr. Palmer: Michigan Bar: R. B. Ellis; Mormon Island: L. Bates; Sacramento City: W. G. Alban, T. B. Bailie, A. Ball, J. R. Boyce, James Blake, Lapsley Braden, Charles H. Bradford, B. B. Brown, W. B. H. Dodson, J. S. Downes, Victor J. Fourgeaud, J. M. Frey, Justin Gates, Jr., R. B. Hall, H. W. Harkness, F. W. Hatch, Jr., W. G. Hatch, Dr. Hiller, H. Houghton, J. L. Howard, D. Hupp, Earnest Juch, J. M. Koon, Thos. M. Logan, Samuel J. May, H. B. May, R. H. McDonald, S. M. Mouser, J. F. Montgomery, John

F. Morse, H. L. Nichols, A. B. Nixon, J. E. Oatman, G. Otto, R. A. Pearis,

G. J. Phelan, J. Powell, Johnson Price, W. G. Proctor, G. L. Simmons, C. Sullivan, Gustavus Taylor, D. J. Thomas, T. A. Thomas, H. J. Underbill, W. W. Upton, D. W. Whitmore, C. B. Zabriskie.

SACRAMENTO CITT. Sacramento City, the capital of the State of California, is one of the most flourishing cities on the Pacific. Notwithstanding the calamities which have, on two or three occasions, nearly destroyed the city, it now presents, in the numerous public works for protection and improvement and a large and increasing trade, substantial evidences of the energy and enterprise of its citizens.

The most important of the public works have cost as follows, viz: The levee, nine miles in length, with a surface breadth of ten feet. Its grade is twenty-two and a half feet above low-water mark, and a base varying from fifty to seventy feet; cost, six hundred thousand dollars. The Water Works, three hundred thousand dollars. Raising the grade and planking the streets, one hundred and eighty-five thousand dollars. Fire Department and Engine Houses, one hundred thousand dollars. Amounting, in all, to one million one hundred and eighty-five thousand dollars.

The following beautiful and appropriate tribute to Sacramento is from the pen of "Caxton," (W. H. Rhodes, Esq.):

"In point of convenient location, of accessibility from all parts of the State, it never did have a rival. In public spirit, in refined society, in thriftiness, in beauty, in taste, it will be many years before it has an equal. It was fitting that the town which grew upon the site of Sutter's old fort, the pioneer spot of western civilization, should have been thus honored. It was but justice that the city which built the first link in the Pacific Railroad should be selected as the capital. No better spot could have been designated than that which is par eminence the garden of the State; which blooms with the sweetest flowers, rejoices in the most genial climate, and is the storehouse of the most luscious fruits, and the most valuable products. Four-fifths of the gold which semi-monthly leaves in millions for the Atlantic States passes through Sacramento; more than one-half the grain, seeds and vmelons, the vegetables and fruits, which find a market in the metropolis, are grown upon the banks of the Sacramento and its tributaries; whilst at least two-thirds of the entire population of the State have made their homes upon that stream and its various branches.

We love Sacramento; its beautiful situation enchants the stranger, and binds the citizen strongiy to his home. The swift flowing river that sweeps by it, bearing upon its bosom argosies richer than the galleons of Venice or the navies of old Tyre ever bore; the snowy Sierras, which lift their cloudcrowned summits half way to the skies, in the blue distance; and the flowercarpeted plains, that stretcli far away in all directions, covered with cattle, and farm houses, and verdure, all offer to the eye and the imagination, a succession of natural beauties of landscape seldom equaled and never surpassed."

Valuation of Property.*—The following is a tabular statement of the assessment of property within the city during the three years last past:


Number of buildings within the levees, at the commencement of the year 1858, (including the American Fork addition,) compared with the previous estimates, is as follows:

* From the Sacramento Vnion.

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Interest due to January 1, 1859, $177,482 04; floating debt warrants, $57,703 60; water pump and engine per contract, $4,000; balance on Franklin School House lot, $4,000; deduct collateral bonds, $30.000—total debt, $1,684,941 41 *

Receipts and Expenditures.—Receipts from April 13, 1857, to May 3, 1858, $313,617 96. Expenditures, same period, $311,694 87 ; estimated receipts, under the present consolidated government, from March 1, 1858, to April 30, 1859, $439,500.



San Bernardino County, organized 1854. Boundaries: North by Tulare, east by the Colorado River, south by San Diego and west by Los Angeles and Tulare.

Topography.—This county contains a large amount of land suitable for agricultural and grazing purposes. The rancho of San Bernardino, formerly the residence of the Mormons, is fast progressing in all the elements of agricultural prosperity. Number of acres in cultivation, ten thousand. A considerable portion of this county is covered with Mexican Grants, and the names of the various ranchos are as follows: San Bernardino, Muscupeable, Jurupa, De Juapa, Be la Sierra, Del Chino, Del Rineon, Temescal, Cucuamonga, San Temoteo.

* See official report of the Commissioner, N. A. H. Ball, Esq., September 28, 1858. The amount Included in the table, p. 113, was made up from the reports previous to that date, which were found by subsequent examination to be incorrect.—[ed.

Legal Distances.—From Sacramento, six hundred miles; from Stockton, six hundred miles, and from San Quentin, four hundred and five miles.



First Judicial District.—Hon. Benjamin Hayes, Judge District Court. Sessions, third Monday in February, May and October.

County Courts.—Terms of County Court: Second Monday in February, May and October. Court of Sessions: First Monday in February, May and October. Probate Court: Fourth Monday in January, April, July and Oct.

First Senatorial District.—Senator: Hon. C. E. Thorn; term expires, January, 1860.

Member of Assembly.—Hon. G. K. Whitman.

Agricultural Products.—Wheat, 1,000 acres, 18,500 bushels; barley, 800 acres, 24,000 bushels; oats, 50 acres, 500bushels; rye, 8 acres, 100 bushels; corn, 5,000 acres, 100,000 bushels; beans, 35 acres: onions, 1,000 bushels.

Fruit Trees, (1857).—Apple,'l,500; peach, 25,000; pear, 500; plum, 150; cherry, 150; nectarine, 220; quince, 200; apricot, 500; fig, 150; citron, 5; olive, 200; pomegranate, 100; almond, 150; walnut, 100. Vines; Gooseberry, 20; strawberry, 3,000.

Grape and the Manufacture of Wine.—The grape is beginning to be extensively cultivated, and will no doubt before many years form an important item of the resources of this county. It is estimated that there will be over two hundred thousand vines planted the approaching season. Number at present in cultivation, 76,000.

Live Stock, (1857).—Horses, 1,708; mules and asses, 185; cattle, 9,712; sheep, 2,455; goats, 464; hogs, 402; poultry, 3,000.

Manufactures.—Grist mills, 3—water; saw mills, 7—steam, 2, water, 5; capacity per day, 27,000 feet of lumber. Distilleries, 1; tanneries, 1.

Mineral Resources.—It is believed, that when the resources of this county shall have been developed, it will prove, with regard to its minerals, one of the richest counties in the State. Quicksilver, iron, copper, lead and a variety of other metals, have already been discovered. Iron, copper, lead and silver exist in large quantities in various parts of the county.

Finances, May 1858.—Floating debt, $5,200. Receipts for fiscal year, $4,000. Expenditures, same period, $3,750.

Attorneys— San Bernardino: S. R. Campbell, A. H. Clark, B. Coopwood, W. Pickett, H. C. Rolfe and J. Sparks.

Physicians.San Bernardino: W. M. Andrews, D. R. Deckey, "W. Mclntyre, J. W. Smith, L. H. Sneod and O. M. Wozencraft.



Boundaries: North by San Bernardino, east by New Mexico, south by Lower California and west by the Pacific Ocean.

Topography.—The land of this county is, with the exception of a small portion, adapted to grazing purposes. There are numerous tracts of small extent cultivated, which produce well. The mountainous districts contain an abundance of timber, among which may be found several varieties of the oak, pine, cedar, fir, ash, sycamore, elm, etc. Gold, silver, lead, copper, etc., are to be found in the mountains, and there are good reasons to believe that future explorations will develop their existence in such abundance as will amply remunerate those who may be engaged in bringing them to light.

The area of the county is estimated by the County Assessor, in his report for 185G, "about eight million five hundred thousand acres of land of which the Colorado Desert comprises about three million, and the mountainous region about four million, leaving one million five hundred thousand acres as level lands lying along the coast, in the valleys and as elevated as table land. The soil of the desert is pronounced by geologists to be exceedingly fertile, the absence of one element alone—moisture—causing it to be a sterile, barren region, and that element might easily be supplied by means of irrigation from the Colorado River, or from artesian wells." Land in cultivation, three thousand acres.


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