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Legal Distances.—From Sacramento, seven hundred and fifty miles; from Stockton, seven hundred and fifty miles, and from San Quentin, five hundred and twenty-five miles.
First Judicial District.—Hon. Benjamin Hayes, Judge District Court. Sessions, third Monday in April, August and December.
County Courts.—The terms of the County Court: First Monday in January, March, May, July, September and November. Court of Sessions: First Monday in February, April, June, August, October and December. Probate Court: Fourth Monday iu each month.
First Senatorial District.—Senator: Hon. C. E. Thorn; term expires, January, 1860.
Member of Assembly.—Hon. A. S. Ensworth.
Agricultural Products.—Wheat, TOO acres, 10,500 bushels; barley, 1,500 acres, 60,000 bushels; oats, 100 acres, 3,000 bushels; corn, 2,000 bushels; potatoes, 1,000 bushels; beans, 200 bushels; peas, 200 bushels; hay, 500 tuns; grapes, 20,000 pounds. Buckwheat and rye have been tried as an experiment, and found to succeed well; rye, especially, seemed to stand the drouth better than the other grains. The soil and climate of the county appear to be well adapted to sweet potatoes and tobacco. Sugar and cotton have also been tried as experiments, which have proved very successful, the cane having a very rapid growth, and the bolls of cotton being of extraordinary size.
Fruit Trees.—The soil and climate are well adapted for every description of fruit, especially the fig and pear, which bear luxuriantly every year. Number of trees, (1857,) 1,000. Number planted, (1858,) 5,000. There are several vineyards in the county, the grapes of which are of large size and excellent flavor. Number of grape vines, 50,000. Five or six hundred gallons of wine made from them the past year proved to be of very good quality.
Live Stock.—Horses, 7,000; mules and asses, 850; cattle, 20,000; sheep, 25,000; hogs, 500; poultry, 4,000.
Mineral Resources.—A variety of valuable minerals have been found in the mountainous districts. A rich vein of coal has also been discovered near San Diego which is said to be of excellent quality. Veins of copper and silver have been recently discovered in this county, which are reported to be exceedingly rich. A very rich vein of silver has been discovered in the vicinity of San Diego. It is favorably located, being but a few miles from the town.
Finances, May, 1858.—Funded debt, $25,300, ten per cent.; floating debt, $6,292 46, interest on registered portion, ten per cent. Cash in treasury, $3,377 79; actual debt, $28,214 77. Receipts for past fiscal year, $4,031 85; exp3nditures same period, $5,000
Attorneys.—San Diego: A. S. Ensworth, "W. C. Ferrell, J. R. Gitchell, D. B. Kurtz, E. W. Morse, J. Nichols and O. S. Witherby.
Physicians.—San Diego: David B. Hoffman.
XXVI.—SAN FRANCISCO CITY AND COUNTY*
San Francisco, organized 1850: city and county consolidated July, 1856.
Topography.—The present city and county of San Francisco are co-extensive, being bounded on the north and east by the bay, extending to low water mark on the shores of Marin County, on the south by the county of San Mateo and on the west by the ocean. The southern boundary, in a direct line, is six and a half miles from the Plaza, being a few yards north of the old Abbey House, the line separating townships numbers two and three, and running due west from the bay to the Pacific. The city and county may be considered nearly square, averaging six and a half miles from north to south, and about the same from east to west, embracing an area of forty-two square miles, or about twenty-seven thousand acres, of which ten thousand are capable of cultivation, eight thousand are rocks, drifting sand and water, six thousand are adapted for pasture, two thousand occupied by the city proper, and about one thousand acres are used for market gardens.
Islands.—The following islands are also within the legislative limits of this city and county, namely: Yerba Buena Island, Alcatraz Island, Angel Island and the Farallon Island. Yerba Buena Island—is situated in the bay of San Francisco, north-east from the city. From Bincon Point and Market Street Wharf it is distant about one mile and a half, and from Contra Costa nearly three miles. The northern end of the island is distant from the Golden Gate (Fort Point) five miles and a half. This island contains 198 acres, of which "75 consist of rich soil, well adapted for garden purposes; 15 acres are heavily timbered, 23 acres jungle and brushwood; 75 acres hilly, rocky and sandy being thickly covered with the herb, or mint plant, from which the island takes its present name. Springs of excellent water abound on the eastern and western sides, in the midst of a fertile valley. The apex of this island is 339 feet above high water. In early times it was densely covered with wood, and was known to ancient mariners and whalers as Wood Island; but in 1839, one W. Spears placed a number of goats thereon, and hence the still popular name of Goat Island. On the easterly side is a wide shoal bay, dry at low water, which, with the present material on the island, could be filled up so as to more than double its size. This island is formed of compact beds of sandstone, of a blueish-gray color, from four to twenty-two inches in thickness. Its texture varies but little in the different beds, and the grain is close and even, and generally very fine. The position of these beds of sandstone ia highly favorable for working, readily loaded at the wharf and ferried over the channel to the city. Several quarries are now opened on the island, and the supply of building stone appears inexhaustible. The IT. S. Government having proposed to place some batteries upon the island, included it iD the third line of fortifications, and it was reserved with the other points in 1850. It is claimed, however, under a Mexican grant, dated 8th November, 1838,
* We are indebted to the politeness of Clement Ferguson, Esq., for the valuable data contained ia this article relative to the Geography, Topography and Finances of San Francisco.
and is said to be the first island granted by Governor Alvarado under the decree "authorizing the granting of islands to Mexican citizens." This claim was recently rejected by the U. S. District Court in this city. IL Alcatraz, (Pelican,) or Bird Island—is also within the bay, lying to the westward of Yerba Buena, from which it is distant about a mile and a half. From the Golden Gate it is under four miles. This island is midway between Yerba Buena and Angel islands. The apex of this rooky eminence is 154 feet above the level of the water, and its area is 26 acres. Its greatest length and breadth are 1,673 feet, and 590 feet respectively. A portion is covered with a luxuriant growth of wild oats. This little isle, being one of the national fortifications, is exempt from taxation. Already 60 guns of heavy caliber have been mounted, and the foundations laid for many more. With two exceptions, its sides are so precipitous that a landing could, with difficulty, be effected. III. Angel Island—is also within the bay, lying nearly three miles northwest of Yerba Buena, and about one mile from Marin County. It contains an area of 750 acres, and its apex is 600 feet above the level of the water. Excavations for building-stone have been made on the south-east end of the island. It is composed of sand-stone similar to that on Yerba Buena, but it is not so dark iu color nor so hard. Specimens that have been examined, contain a notable quantity of carbonate of lime. The strata dips westwardly, and the quarry is opened on their upturned edges, and not at the ends of the beds, as at Yerba Buena. The weathered surfaces present the usual rusty color, and the divisional places or clearages are numerous. This island has heretofore been included within the boundaries of Marin, (see "Wood's Digest, p. 132,) but subsequent legislation has assigned it to San Francisco, the northern boundary of which extends to the low water mark of Marin, commencing on the coast, "opposite Fort Point, thence following said low water mark to a point due north-west of Golden Rock." See Statutes of 1857, p. 209. It ia worthy of remark, however, that this recent Act recites Yerba Buena, Alcatraz and the Farallons as the islands within the jurisdiction of San Francisco; yet by examining the map it will be apparent, notwithstanding the omission to designate Angel Island with the others, that the words above cited are almost conclusive as to its being within the limits of San Francisco. This is the first year that this island has been included in the assessment roll of this city and county. IT. The Farallon Rocks or Islands—in the Pacific Ocean, embrace the northerly, the middle and the southerly groups, the latter being distant from the former about seven miles. The northerly cluster is made up of five rooks; the middle is a single rock; and the southerly is the larger, (being two miles in circumference,) upon which the light-house stands, the top of the tower being 330 feet above the level of the sea, and about 29 miles westward from the Golden Gate. It is really difficult to imagine a more desolate and barren place than these "rocky islets" present to view; yet collectively they may be considered as the most extensive poultry yard in tho world, for here may be found in myraids the bird described by Buffon as the Guillamot, (the Uria Troile of Linnaeus,) which lay their eggs upon the bare rocks. The appellation of the Foolish Guillamot has been given to this species by Latham, from the fact of its being with difficulty roused to flight, and often suffering itself to be caught with the hand, particularly during incubation. Some idea may be formed of their numbers, when we state, that each bird, during the season, lays but a single egg, and that since 1851 upwards of four million of their eggs have been sold in the San Francisco market. They are of a pale green color blotched with umber, are much in demand in restaurants, for pies, omelets, etc., one house alone using from 800 to 900 daily. The egg season lasts about six weeks, from the middle of May to the end of June. This year about 30,000 dozen have been disposed of, the price averaging forty cents a dozen. In 1851 they readily brought a dollar and a half. However, the expenses of the company absorb fully sixty per cent, of the gross receipts. Last year these islands were sold for non-payment of taxes to the "Pacific Farallon Company." Not having been redeemed, the tax title has become absolute.
Geological Features.—The principal rock formations of the vicinity of San Francisco are fine grained, compact sandstones, associated with shales; together with erupted trappean rocks and serpentine, all probably of recent origin. The sandstone underlies the city and is exposed along the shores of the bay, forming the principal promontories and points. On entering the bay from the Pacific, the rock is first seen at Point Lobos. The continued action of the ocean swell has worn the rocks into rugged cliffs, and excavated caverns and arches. Many large masses are detached from the cliffs and lie scattered about in the surf. These isolated island-rocks are the places of resort for sea-birds and the "huge sea-lion." However, the best section of the same formation may be seen from Pacific Street, where Telegraph Hill has been excavated. There, the stratification is very distinct, and the alternation of thick beds of argillaceous sandstone with shales and slate, is visible. Up to the present time, they have been found singularly devoid of fossils—not one shell having been met with, in them. The covering of soil, which appears to have been derived from the decomposition of the strata, is found to be a good material for making bricks, and it is extensively used in that manufacture. This fact shows that the rocks contain a large per centage of alumina, and the presence of oxyd of iron is indicated by the rusted color of the weathered rock, as well as by the deep-red tinge of burned bricks. The formation, next in importance to the sandstone, in point of extent and development, is the serpentinoid rock. It forms a high and prominent ridge, midway between the shores of the bay and the ocean, abutting upon the Golden Gate, and forming Fort Point The width of the ridge is about a mile and a hajf; but its extension, southward, is not accurately known. In that direction it is partly obscured by sand, but forms a knob at the Orphan Asylum, near the Mission. The dark-colored portions of the rock were used in the construction of that excellent institution; but there is nothing to recommend it as a building-stone, except (in this instance,) its presence on the spot, as it is not calculated to resist the action of the weather. Along the shores of the Mission Bay, there are extensive flats of swampy land, of alluvial origin. The surface consists of a very thick turf, which, cut out and dried in the sun, is suitable for fuel. On the hills around the city, there is a slight formation of alluvial drift, limited in extent, and occupying the lower parts of the principal depressions. In boring through the earth on the site of the Custom House, several beds of sand, clay and gravel, were found to succeed in regular order for a depth of sixty or eighty feet. This locality is below tide-level, and it is between these accumulations of drift or alluvium, and the rocks, that sheets of water, or water-bearing strata, are found, and are reached by Artesian borings in various parts of the city. Perhaps no point on the Pacific Coast presents more favorable opportunities for studying the phenomena of sand-dunes, than the peninsula of San Francisco. On the Pacific side there is an extensive beach, reaching for miles, north and south, and a long distance inland. A wide area is thus covered by loose, dry, seasand, and it has the aspect and character of a desert. From this large tract, has undoubtedly been accumulated, by the action of the ocean winds, the extensive formation of blown sand, which prevails within the city limits. Most of the hills in the city, where they were partially sheltered, are, or were, covered with a thick growth of shrubs, (chamisal,) which prevented the wind from acting upon their surfaces and removing the sand. Here we may add that artesian borings for water have been numerous, and that it is almost impossible to ascertain their number and localities. Water appears to be found in all parts of the city around the hills, and generally at a depth of not more than one hundred and fifty feet, but the depth varies with the locality. In Happy Valley, the borings are successful at a depth of seventy feet; north of California Street the depth increases, one in Montgomery Block being one hundred and sixty feet. The depths to which borings are carried, increase from the base of the hills towards the bay, and many of the wells are bored down through the salt water. See Blake's valuable Report.
Surveys of San Francisco.—In the spring of 1839, Governor Alvarado directed Alcalde F. De Haro to cause a survey of Terba Buena to be made, and to lay out streets and lots. In the fall of the same year, and under his direction, Juan Vioget, a surveyor, made the first survey and plan of Yerba Buena. That survey was bounded by Pacific, Montgomery, Sacramento and Dupont streets. Subsequent surveys (each more extended than its predecessor,) were made officially by Jasper O'Farrell, "W. M. Eddy and John J. Hoff. East of Larkin and Johnson streets, the city is divided into—First. Fifty vara lots. Second. One hundred vara lots. Third. Beach and water lots. Fourth. North Beach blocks. Fifth. South Beach blocks. Sixth. City Slip lots. 1st. In the "Fifty vara survey," there are 1,530 lots, with official numbers affixed, each 50 vara lot forming a square of 131 and a half feet, exclusive of Nos. 695, 709 and 753, which are duplicated. Forty only of the 50 vara lots being located south of Market Street. North of Market Street are also 100 vara lots, Nos. 1, 18, 24, 49, 50, 56, 57, 76, 673 and 675. 2d. In the "One hundred vara survey," each lot forming a square of 275 feet, the num