The eighteenth Presidential term began on the fourth day of March, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, and will expire on the third day of March, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one.


JAMES BUCHANAN Pennsylvania President $25,000

John C. Breckinridge Kentucky Vice-President. 8,000

The Cabinet.

The following are the principal officers in the Executive Department of the Government, who form the Cabinet, and who hold their offices at the will of the President;


Lewis Cass Michigan Secretary of State $8,000

Howell Cobb Georgia Secretary of the Treasury.. 8,000

Jacob Thompson Mississippi Secretary of the Interior... 8,000

John B. Floyd Virginia Secretary of War 8,000

Isaac Toucey Connecticut Secretary of the Navy 8,000

Aaron V. Brown Tennessee Postmaster-General. 8,000

Jeremiah S. Black. .. .Pennsylvania .. .Attorney-General 8,000


The Congress of the United States consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, which is required by law to assemble, at least once in every year on the first Monday of December, unless otherwise provided by law. There are two sessions of each Congress, the latter of which expires on the third day of March of the second year thereof. Extra sessions may be convened by the President of the United States whenever he may deem such action necessary.

The Senate of the United States is composed of two members from each State, elected by the Legislatures thereof for the term of six years each. The terms of the members are so arranged that one-third expire biennially.

The Vice-President of the United States is the President of the Senate, and as the presiding officer of that body, has only a casting vote, which ia given in case of an equal division of the votes of the Senators. In his absence, a President pro tempore is selected from among the Senators by the Senate.

The House of Representatives is composed of members from tho several States elected by the people thereof, by separate districts composed of contiguous territory. No one district to elect more than one member. The Representatives are apportioned as follows: After the returns of the national census, which is taken decennially, are officially known, the aggregate population of the United States is ascertained by the Secretary of the Interior, by adding to the whole number of free persons in all the States, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other persons. This aggregate is divided by two hundred and thirty-three, and the quotient, rejecting fractions, if any, is the ratio of apportionment among the several States. The representative population of each State is then ascertained in the same manner, and is divided by the above named ratio, and this quotient gives the apportionment of Representatives to each State. The loss by fractions is compensated for by assigning to as many •States, having the largest fractions, as may be necessary, one additional member each for its fraction, so as to make the whole number of Representatives two hundred and thirty-three. If, after the apportionment, new States are admitted, Representatives are assigned to such States upon the above basis, in addition to the limited number, two hundred and thirty-three; but Buch excess continues only until the next apportionment under the succeeding census. The present number of Representatives is two hundred and thirty-seven, an additional Representative being temporarily assigned to California and three to Minnesota. There are also six Delegates, one each from the territories of Oregon, Utah, New Mexico, Washington, Kansas and Nebraska, who have a right to speak but not to vote.

The Speaker of the House is selected from among the Representatives, by the members thereof, for the term for which they have been elected.

By the Act of Congress of one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, the compensation of each Member of Congress, (that is, each Senator, Representative or Delegate,) shall be six thousand dollars for each Congress, and the mileage now provided by law, (eight dollars for each twenty miles travel by the usual road, in going to and returning from Washington,) for two sessions only, to be paid as follows: On the first day of the session, the mileage for one session, and on the first day of each month thereafter, during the session, compensation at the rate of three thousand dollars per annum, during the continuance of such session, and the residue at the rate aforesaid, to be paid at the close of each session; and for the second session each member shall receive his mileage and compensation in like manner up to the close of his term, the third of March terminating the Congress, and on that day he shall receive the balance then due him of the six thousand dollars. If there be no Vice-President, or if the Vice-President has become the President of the United States, the President of the Senate pro tempore shall receive the compensation provided by law for the Vice-President, and the Speaker of the House shall receive twelve thousand dollars for each Congress, payable as in the case of the members. In case of death no mileage or pay shall be allowed, except what is actually due. Absence, except in case of sickness, to be deducted from the monthly pay of each member. This law to apply to the present Congress, each Member to be paid the difference between his per diem already received and the amount allowed hereby.

Commences Monday, December 6, 1858; expires March 3, 1859.

The SenateSixty-four Members.* John C. Breckinridge, President, ex officio; Benjamin Fitzpatrick, President, pro tern.; Ashbury Dickens, Secretary.

T'm ex.


Clement C. Clay, Jr.(a)..1859
Benjamin Fitzpatrick.., 1861


William K. Sebastian ...1859
Robert W. Johnson 1861


William M. Gwin 1861

David C. Broderick. 1863


Lafayette S. Foster. 1861

James Dixon 1863


Martin W. Bates 1859

James A. Bayard 1863


David L. Yulee 1861

Stephen R. Mallory 1863


Robert Toombs (a) .1859

Alfred Iverson 1861


Graham N. Fitch 1861

Jesse D. Bright 1863


Stephen A. Douglas 1859

Lyman TrumbuM 1861


George W. Jones (6) 1859

James Harlan 1861


John B. Thompson (c)...1859
John J. Crittenden 1861

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T'm ex.


David S. Reid 1859

Thomas L. Clingman 1861


George E. Pugh 1861

Benjamin F. Wade .1863


William Bigler 1861

Simon Cameron 1863


Phillip Allen (d). 1859

James F. Simmons ..1863


Arthur P. Hayne 1859

James H. Hammond 1861


John Bell (c) 1859

Andrew Johnson. 1863


Samuel Houston (/) 1859

Vacancy 1863

Jacob CoUamer 1861

Solomon Foot 1863


Robert M. T. Hunter(a) 1865
James M. Mason 1859


James R. Doolittle (a) ...1859
Charles Durkee 1861

Democrats (in Roman), 38; Republicans (in Italics), 20; Americans (in Small Caps), 6. Yacancy, 1. Total, 64.

(a) Re-elected for six years from March, 1859. (6) James W. Grimes elected as his successor, (c) Lazarus W. Powell elected, (d) Henry B. Anthony elected, (c) A. O. P. Nicholson elected. (/) J. W. Hemphill elected.

2.—House Of Representatives—237 Members. James L. Orr, of South Carolina, Speaker; Jas. C. Allen, of Illinois, Clerk.

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* Joseph Lrdo and Pelazon Smith have been elected Senators from Oregon, which will increase this number to sixty-six when that State is admitted into the Union, f Occasioned by the death of J. Pinckney Henderson.

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18 John R. Edit,

19 John Covode,

20 "William Montgomery,

21 David Ritchie,

22 Samuel A. Purviance,

23 William Stewart,

24 Jamee L. Gillis,

25 John Dick.


1 Nathaniel B. Durfee,

2 William D. Braylon.


1 John McQueen,

2 W. Porcher Miles,

3 Lawrence M. Keitt,

4 Mi Hedge L. Bonham, 6 James L. Orr,

6 William W. Boyce.


1 Albert G. Walking,

2 Horace Matnard,

3 Samuel A. Smith,

4 John H. Savage,
6 Charles React,

6 George W. Jones,

7 John V. Wright,


9 John D. C. AtkinB, 10 William T.Avery.


1 Guy M. Bryan,

2 James H. Reagan.


1 Eztkiel P. Walton,

2 Justin S. Morrill,

3 Homer E. Royce.


1 Muscoe R. H. Garnett,

2 John S. Millson,

3 John S. Caskie,

4 William O. Goode,

5 Thomas S. Bocock,

6 Panlns Powell,

7 William Smith,

8 Charles J. Faulkner,

9 John Letcher,

10 Sherrard Clemens,

11 Albert G. Jenkins,

12 Henry A. Edmundson,

13 George W. Hopkins.


1 John F. Potter,

2 Cadw. C. Washbume,

3 Charles BUlinghurst.


KansasMarcus J. Parrott.
Minnesota—W. W .K in gsbury ]
Nebraska—V. Ferguson.
New Mexico—M. A. Otero.
Oregon—Joseph Lane.
Utah—John M. Bernheisel.
Washington—J. J. Stevens.

Democrats (in Roman), 132; Republicans (in Italic), 91; Americans (in Small Caps), 14. Total 23t.


Lewis Cass, Secretary of State Salary, $8,000

John Appleton Assistant Secretary 11 3,000

Intercourse With Foreign Nations.* Ministers And Diplomatic Agents Of The United States In Foreign Countries.

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary, Secretaries of Legation, etc

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