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CONTENTS.

PAGE.

I.-EDUCATION AND SCHOOLS....
OOLS........................

...................1-4

BUSHNELL-PAGE-POTTER—WOODBRIDGE-MANN......... ............. 5

II.-FACULTIES AND STUDIES—Their Order and Method of Treatment..5-268

I. INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL EDUCATION. By William Russell.. ..............5-156

1. The Perceptive Faculties.............

.......... 5

2. The Expressive Faculties............................................... 57

3. The Reflective Faculties................................................ 101

II. MORAL EDUCATION. By William Russell. ................................. 157-186

Health-Intellect–Taste-Sensibility-Instinctive Tendencies............. 160

Primary Emotions-Benignant Affections-Generous Affections............ 165

Religious Principles—The Will-Practical Virtues--Humane Virtues....... 175

Personal qualities-Self Renouncing Virtues-Example-Habits........... 179

III. RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION. By Rt. Rev. George Burgess...................... 187-192

Intrinsic Importance-Limitations in Public Schools....

........ 187

IV. THE TRUE ORDER OF STUDY. By Thomas Hill, D.D....... ............ 193-254

Mathesis-Physics-History-Psychology - Theology ..................... 196

V. THE POWERS TO BE EDUCATED. By Thomas Hill, D.D...................... 245-256

The Senses-Inward Intuition-Memory--Reason-Sensibility-Will...... 245

VI. MIND-OBJECTS AND METHODS OF ITS CULTURE. By Francis Wayland, D.D. 257-272

1. Science of Edacation-To discover, apply, and obey God's Laws........... 259

2. Methods of training the mind to these objects. ..........

............. 266

III.—THE TEACHER...................

.......... 273-304

I. THE DIGNITY OF THE OFFICE, AND SPECIAL PREPARATION. By W. E. Channing.... 273

II. THE TEACHER'S MOTIVES. By Horace Mann.......

............... 277

IV.-NATIONAL AND STATE RELATIONS TO EDUCATION........... 305-336

I. EDUCATION A NATIONAL INTEREST. George Washington.........

II. TAE DUTY OF THE STATE TO MAKE EDUCATION UNIVERSAL...

BISHOP DOANE- Address to the People of New Jersey........

PENN-ADAMS-JEFFERSON-MADISON-JAY-Rusu-KENT......

III. THE RIGHT AND PRACTICE OF PROPERTY TAXATION FOR Sche

D. D. BARNARD—Report to the Legislature of New York..... ...

DANIEL WEBSTER-The early School Policy of New England. ................

HORACE MANN-The principles underlying the Ordinance of 1647....,

HENRY BARNARD—The Early School Codes of Connecticut and New Haven. ... 332

National Land Grants for Educational Purposes...........

V.-VARIOUS ASPECTS OF POPULAR AND HIGHER EDUCATION.... 337-400

I. BISHOP ALONZO POTTER, D.D., of Penn....................... .............

Consolidation and other Modifications of American Colleges............... 337

II. EDWARD EVERETT, President of Harvard College........................

...... 343

Reminiscences of School and College Life-Conditions of a good school. ... 344
Popular Education and Sound Science-Moral Education................. 850
Generous Studies-Homeric Controversy-Education and Civilization. .....

Popular Education-Boston Public Library-Female Education...........
MI. P. A. P. BARNARD, D.D., LL.D., President of Columbia College.......

College Contributions to the American Educated Mind......
Sub-graduate and Post-graduate Collegiate Course_Oral Teaching ........
Higher Scientific Instruction-Elective Studies.........

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878

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IV. MARK HOPKINS, D.D., President of Williams College. .......

Education-Self Education-Female Education-Academies.

Medical Science-Theological Education-Colleges.........

V

381

ieges........................
V. JAMES E. FAIRCHILD, D.D., President of Oberlin College. .....................

Co-education of the Sexes.............................................

VI.-PROFESSIONAL OR NORMAL AIMS AND METHODS IN TEACHING.....

I. JOHN S. Hart, Principal of State Normal School, Trenton........... ...........

What is Special or Professional Preparation ?-Teaching-Training.......

Recitations-Art of Questioning, ......................

II. CYRUS PIERCE, Principal of the first State Normal School......

Aims and Methods in Training Pupil-Teachers. ...........................

III. NICHOLAS TILLINGUAST, Principal of State Normal School at Bridgewater........

Aims and Methods in Training Teachers.............

IV. J. W. DICKINSON, Principal of State Normal School at Westfield. ........... ...

The Philosophy and Method of Teaching at Westfield...

V. D. P. PAGE, Principal of State Normal School, Albany..........

The Pouring-in Process—The Drawing-out Process—Waking up of Mind...

DR. WAYLAND-THOMAS H. GRIMKE........................................... 447

Method of Recitation and Study........................................ 448

VI. E. A. SUELDON, Principal of State Training School, Oswego.. ...................

Object Teaching as pursued at Oswego...........

VII. H. B. Wilbur, Superintendent of State School for Feeble Minded Youth.....

Object Teaching as pursued at Oswego.........

VIII. S.W. Mason, Principal of Hancock Grammar School, Boston.........

Physical Exercises in School.........

... 465

IX. M. F. COWDERY, Superintendent of Public Schools, Sandusky......... ... 473

Formation of Moral Character....

.... 473

'EARLY TRAINING.

APHORISMS AND SUGGESTIONS ANCIENT AND MODERN.

We are physiologically connected and set forth in our beginnings, and it is a matter of immense consequence to our character, what the connection is. In our birth we not only begin to breathe and circulate blood, but it is a question hugely significant whose the blood may be. For in this we have whole rivers of predispositions, good or bad, set running in us—as much more powerful to shape our future than all tuitional and regulative influences thåt come after, as they are earlier in their beginning, deeper in their insertion, and more constant in their operation.

Here, then, is the real and true beginning of a godly nurture. The child is not to have the sad entail of any sensuality, or excess, or distempered passion upon him. The heritage of love, peace, order, continence and holy courage is to be his. He is not to be morally weakened beforehand, in the womb of folly, by the frivolous, worldly, ambitious, expectations of parents-to-be, concentrating all their nonsense in him. His affinities are to be raised by the godly expectations, rather, and prayers that go before; by the steady and good aims of their industry, by the great impulse of their faith, by the brightness of their hope, by the sweet continence of their religiously pure love in Christ. Born, thus, of a parentage that is ordered in all righteousness, and maintains the right use of every thing, especially the right use of nature and marriage, the child will have just so much of heaven's life and order in him beforehand, as have become fixed properties in the type of his parentage.

Observe how very quick the child's eye is, in the passive age of infancy, to catch impressions, and receive the meaning of looks, voices, and motions. It peruses all faces, and colors, and sounds. Every sentiment that looks into its eyes, looks back out of its eyes, and plays in miniature on its countenance. The tear that steals down the cheek of a mother's suppressed grief, gathers the little infantile face into a responsive sob. With a kind of wondering silence, which is next thing to adoration, it studies the mother in her prayer, and looks up piously with her, in that exploring watch, that signifies unspoken prayer. If the child is handled fretfully, scolded, jerked, or simply laid aside unaffectionately, in no warmth of motherly gentleness, it feels the sting of just that which is felt towards it; and so it is angered by anger, irritated by irritation, fretted by fretfulness; having thus impressed, just that kind of impatience or ill-nature, which is felt towards it, and growing faithfully into the bad mold offered, as by a fixed law. There is great importance, in this manner, even in the handling of infancy. If it is unchristian, it will beget unchristian states, or impressions. If it is gentle, ever patient and loving, it prepares a mood and temper like its own. There is scarcely room to doubt, that all most crabbed, hateful, resentful, passionate, illnatured characters; all most even, lovely, firm and true, are prepared, in a great degree, by the handling of the nursery. To these and all such modes of feeling and treatment as make up the element of the infant's life, it is passive as wax to the seal. So that if we consider how small a speck, falling into the nucleus of a crystal, may disturb its form; or, how even a mote of foreign matter present in the quickening egg, will suffice to produce a deformity; considering, also, on the other hand, what nice conditions of repose, in one case, and what accurately modulated supplies of heat in the other, are necessary to a perfect product; then only do we begin to imagine what work is going on, in the soul of a child, in this first chapter of life, the age of impressions.

I have no scales to measure quantities of effect in this matter of early training, but I may be allowed to express my solemn conviction, that more, as a general fact, is done, or lost by neglect of doing, on a child's immortality, in the first three years of his life, than in all his years of discipline afterwards. And I name this particular time, or date, that I may not be supposed to lay the chief stress of duty and care on the latter part of what I have called the age of impressions; which, as it is a matter somewhat indefinite, may be taken to cover the space of three or four times this number of years; the development of language, and of moral ideas being only partially accomplished, in most cases, for so long a time. Let every Christian father and mother understand, when their child is three years old, that they have done more than half of all they will ever do for his character. What can be more strangely wide of all just apprehension, than the immense efficacy, imputed by most parents to the Christian ministry, compared with what they take to be the almost insignifi. cant power conferred on them in their parental charge and duties. Why, if all preachers of Christ could have their hearers, for whole months and years, in their own will, as parents do their children, so as to move them by a look, a motion, a smile, a frown, and act their own sentiments and emotions over in them at pleasure; if, also, a little farther on, they had them in authority to command, direct, tell them whither to go, what to learn, what to do, regulate their hours, their books, their pleasures, their company, and call them to prayer over their own knees every night and morning, who could think it impossible, in the use of such a power, to produce almost any result? Should not such a ministry be expected to fashion all who come under it to newness of life? Let no parent, shifting off his duties to his children, in this manner, think to bave his defects made up, and the consequent damages mended afterwards, when they have come to their maturity, by the comparatively slender, always doubt. ful, efficacy of preaching and pulpit harangue.

Dr. BUSHNELL. Christian Nurture.

“A virtuous and noble education " is whatever tends to train up to a healthy and graceful activity our mental and bodily powers, our affections, manners, and habits. It is the business, of course, of all our lives, or, more properly, of the whole duration of our being. But since im. pressions made early are the deepest and most lasting, that is, above all, education which tends in childhood and youth to form a manly, upright, and generous character, and thus to lay the foundation for a course of liberal and virtuous self-culture.

Alonzo POTTER. The School and Schoolmaster.

Costly apparatus and splendid cabinets have no magical power to make scholars. As a man is, in all circumstances under God, the master of his own fortune, so is he the maker of his own mind. The Creator has so constituted the human intellect, that it can only grow by its own action; and it will certainly and necessarily grow. Every man must therefore educate himself. His books and his teachers are but his helps; the work is his. A man is not educated until he has the ability to summon, on an emergency, his mental powers in vigorous exercise to affect his proposed object. It is not the man who has seen the most, or read the most who can do this; such an one is in danger of being borne down, like a beast of burden, by an overloaded mass of other men's thoughts. Nor is it the man who can boast merely of native vigor and capacity. The greatest of all the warriors who went to the siege of Troy, had not the preëminence because nature had given him strength, and he carried the largest bow; but because self-discipline had taught him how to bend it.

DANIEL WEBSTER.

Education is development, not instruction merely-not knowledge, facts, rules—communicated by the teacher, but it is discipline, it is a waking up of the mind, a growth of the mind-growth by a healthy assimilation of wholesome aliment. It is an inspiring of the mind with a thirst for knowledge, growth, enlargement-and then a disciplining of its powers so far that it can go on to educate itself. It is the arousing of the child's mind to think, without thinking for it; it is the awakening of its powers to observe, to remember, to reflect, to combine. It is not a cultivation of the memory to the neglect of every thing else; but is a calling forth of all the faculties into harmonious action.

David Page. Theory and Practice.

Oh, woto those who trample on the mind,
That deathless thing! They know not what they do,
Nor what they deal with. Man, perchance, may bind
The flower his step hath bruised; or light anew
The torch he quenches; or to music wind
Again the lyre-string from his touch that flew ;-
But for the soul, oh, tremble, and beware
To lay rude hands upon God's mysteries there!

Anonymous.

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