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of the University. But it is customary to allow students to count the days which have been otherwise properly kept previous to formal matriculation. A student can begin keeping days as soon as term commences, although he may not be presented to the Warden for matriculation until a fortnight or more of the term has elapsed.
The first payment which those entering at University College and Hatfield Hall have to make is the deposit of £15 as Caution money. By paying this to the Bursar in each case they take formal possession of their rooms. Unattached students have no such payment to make.
Towards the end of the first week in Term the Treasurer of the University puts out a notice of the days on which he will receive fees. It is important to go on one of the days fixed. After the last day named on the notice a student can keep no days towards his term until the fees are paid. These fees are as follows Admission
£2 0 0 Tuition
4 10 0 Censor's
0 10 0 University Chest
0 10 0 University Library
0 10 0
Of course the Admission Fee is paid in the first term only: in the other terms the fees amount to £6. Unattached students pay no Censor's Fee; consequently their fees amount in the first term to £7 10s., in subsequent terms to £5 10s. Probationary Students pay an additional fee of £2 a term; and for this they receive additional tuition
of a more private and elementary kind than the public lectures. A Probationary Student is one who has failed to pass the Entrance Examination, but has been recommended for admission by the examiners in spite of his deficiency. He can count no terms until he has passed the Entrance Examination; but as soon as he has passed it his terms kept as a probationer are allowed to count as if he had passed at the outset. A probationer ought to make a point of passing the Entrance Examination at the earliest opportunity after his admission. A probationer in Arts has an opportunity of being examined again at the beginning of every term. But there is no examination for entrance in Theology in Easter Term. Consequently a person admitted as a probationer in Theology in January must remain a probationer until the following October.
If a student keeps more terms than are absolutely necessary, his fees are reduced. Six terms are necessary in each course. In the seventh term the fees are £4 instead of £6; in the eighth and all subsequent terms £2. Similarly when a B.A. enters the Theological course, or a Licentiate the Arts course, only one term is necessary. Consequently, in the second term the fees are £4, in the third and all subsequent terms £2. Encouragement is thus given to students to reside for more than the minimum period required. This remark brings us to the question of residence.
RES I D E N C E.
It was noticed at the outset (p. 2) as one of the distinctive features of Durham that it requires only two years of residence for a degree. Formerly three years were required, as at Oxford and Cambridge ; but in 1865 the period was reduced to two years to meet the case of those who cannot afford either the time or the money for a three years course. Similarly the amount of residence required of a B.A. for the Licence in Theology, or of a Licentiate for a Degree, was reduced from three terms to one. But it was never intended that while this boon was granted to those who could afford no more than this minimum, it should be accepted also by those who could easily afford to reside longer. Those who have their own interests
. as students, and the interests of the University as a centre of education, at heart, will make a point of residing more than the absolute minimum required. There is something almost piteous in a graduate's supposing that a single term in Theology is sufficient for his needs. When he is a hardworked curate trying to teach others, he will wish in vain for the additional training in Theology which two more terms of residence would have given him. The case of a Licentiate in Theology who is satisfied with a single term in Arts is very similar. The fact of his having taken the Licence instead of the Degree is almost proof that his education has been defective. And for this deficiency a few terms in Arts would be in most cases an excellent corrective. Yet he only takes a single term. Moreover, as soon as he is ordained, he will find out that even in a rural parish he works at a disadvantage if he has not got a University Degree. He cannot afford much time for reading classics, and he needs help in his reading: and he too will wish in vain for the additional training which two more terms of residence would have given him. Every one who knows the older Universities, knows that a student derives more benefit from his third year of residence than from the two first years put together. A student at Durham who without necessity takes only the minimum of residence is voluntarily rejecting the
most valuable part of a University career: he is withdrawing his capital just when heavy interest is about to be paid.
The benefit to the University itself, if residence for three years were the rule instead of the exception, would be immense. Firstly, numbers generally would be greatly increased ; secondly, the number of senior men in particular would be greatly increased ; thirdly, traditions, which form so large a portion of the life of a great institution, would have some chance of being established, and when established of being preserved. Where there is no large body of men, very few seniors, and no traditions, the whole place may be turned upside down by a few bumptious and wrong-headed freshmen. And this thought suggests to us the subject of discipline.
THERE are not many rules, and some of them have been stated already. But it may be convenient to put together the principal rules which students, when they matriculate, promise to obey.
1. Leave to come into residence before or after the day appointed, or to go out of residence before or after the day appointed, must be obtained from the Head of the College or Hall, or in the case of Unattached Students) from the Junior Proctor.
2. The Academical Dress is to be worn at Chapel and all Cathedral services during term, at lectures, in Hall, and in all public places before 1.0 P.M. and after dusk.
3. No smoking is allowed in any public place either of the University or of the city.
4. No student is allowed to enter an hotel or inn in the city or immediate neighbourhood without leave, unless his parents are staying there.
5. Leave of absence from a lecture must be obtained from the lecturer: leave of absence from Collections must be obtained from all the tutors and ratified by the Warden.
6. Leave to go away by train for the day must be obtained from the Censor; leave to be out all night must be obtained from the Head of the College or Hall. Unattached Students in both cases must apply to the Junior Proctor.
Of these rules the 4th and 6th are specially important. To enter an hotel or inn without leave is considered a serious offence; to be out all night without leave is considered a very serious offence. The penalty in the latter case would most probably be rustication'; i.e., the offender is sent away from the University for the rest of the term, or for a still longer period.
The penalty for being absent from a lecture without leave is that the day is thereby lost, and cannot be counted towards keeping the term. Absence from morning chapel also involves the loss of the day. On Sundays absence from the Cathedral service either morning or afternoon involves the loss of the day, excepting in the case of clerical students taking duty.
Forty-five days must be kept in order to keep a full term, twenty-six in order to keep a half-term. But to keep only this minimum is to be very irregular, unless sickness or necessary absence is the reason.
There are no fixed penalties for breaches of the other rules, but reprimands, confinement to College, or fines, are inflicted according to circumstances.
Under rule 6 leave to be out all night is not given excepting in urgent cases, or for the night preceding