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an 'open day,' i.e., a day on which there are no lectures. When an open day' falls on a Monday leave is given from midday on Saturday to Monday night for any reasonable purpose.
Collections, mentioned in rule 5, are the examinations at the end of each term in the work done in lectures during the term. They usually take place on the last Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of each term. On the Monday following the students come in one by one before the Warden, and the Professors, Tutors, and Lecturers make a report as to conduct and work during the term, and results produced in Collections. There are prizes, varying in amount from £1 to £3, for those who distinguish themselves in these terminal examinations, while those who do badly are reprimanded and warned. But there is no question of passing in these Collections: the only examinations which a student has to pass are the Entrance, First Year, and Final Examinations.
These we will now proceed to consider, taking the Arts course first, as being that which must always form the back-bone of every University education. Only a brief outline will be given here. Much more full information and advice will be found in Chapters XI. and XII. Students are advised to read the whole of Chapters XI. and XII., whatever may be their own special line of study. Students in Arts may get some valuable hints from what is stated under the head of the Theological Course, and vice versâ : passmen may find some points worth noting in the sections which specially apply to candidates for Honours, and vice versâ.
COURSES OF STUDY.
The Arts Course.
ALL courses, whether in Arts or Theology, are alike in having three Examinations :-(1) Admission, (2) First Year, (3) Final. And all students will find it a very great advantage to aim at a high standard in the examination for admission. The standard required is not a high one; but all should aim at something more than merely getting in.
Good work done before entering is work saved for the regular course; and careful preparation for the first and comparatively unimportant examination may easily prevent failures in either or both of the other two examinations. From this point of view some, who have very little chance of obtaining a Scholarship or Exhibition, would do well to try for one: certainly everyone who intends reading for Honours ought to try for a Scholarship on entering.
Reasons have been given elsewhere, both in the Chapter on Choice of Course (p. 3) and in that on the Arts Course (p. 29), why the Arts Course should, as a rule, be preferred to the Theological, and why (if both courses are taken) the Arts Course should be taken first. But the rule has exceptions (see p. 4).
The Entrance Examination over, the candidate for the Ordinary Pass Degree will find that his work is divided for him into two fairly equal halves. For each of the next two examinations there are required :--1. One Latin and one Greek author; 2. Ancient History; 3. English History ; 4. Latin and Greek Grammar. So far the two examinations are exactly equivalent. Besides these four, there are required for the First Year Examination:
5. Two Gospels in Greek; 6. Old Testament History; 7. Arithmetic; 8. Logic or Euclid. Besides these four, there are required for the Final Examination :-5. One Gospel and the Acts in Greek ; 6. Paley's Evidences ; 7. Paley's Natural Theology; 8. Logic, Euclid or Mechanics, French, German, or Hebrew. In the Final Examination one of these six alternatives may be substituted for English History. In both examinations Latin Prose is an optional subject. It is quite easy to pass either without it; but a student who can do it fairly well may help his other work with it. It comes into the course of study, whether it be offered for examination or not. Knowledge of a language remains very incomplete until at least a moderate power of translating into it as well as from it is acquired. In the three alternative subjects, French, German, and Hebrew, translation into the language selected is not optional but necessary.
Candidates for Honours in Arts, whether in Classics or Mathematics, find their work divided very unequally between the two examinations, the work for the Final being very much heavier than for the First Year Examination; so much so that while the work for First Year can be done satisfactorily in a year, that for the Final cannot. It is almost necessary to allow eighteen months or two years for the Final Examination. More will be found on this point in Chapter XI.
Of course necessity has no laws, and a student who cannot give more than the bare two years to his University career need not on that account abandon the attempt to obtain Honours in the Final Examination. If he holds a Scholarship, he will be obliged to try for Honours in both examinations. But he must make up his mind to face very hard work, with the prospect of failing to obtain the highest Honours at the end of it. (For details of this course see Chapter XI.)
The Theological Course. Candidates for this course must be nineteen years of age. The easy Entrance Examination having been passed, the candidate for the Licence will find his work divided into two rather unequal portions, the smaller portion coming first. In each of the next two examinations he will be required to pass in :-1. Two Gospels and the Acts in Greek; 2. One long Epistle in Greek. (The Gospels are so arranged that the two examinations cover all four.) In addition to these two common subjects there are required for the First Year Examination—3. Cicero, De Officiis, Books i., ii. ; 4. Paley's Evidences ; 5. Scripture History; 6. Euclid, Books i., ii., or certain portions of Butler's Sermons and Analogy. In addition to these two common subjects there are required for the Final Examination—3. Three or four shorter Epistles in Greek ; 4. Ecclesiastical History to A.D. 451; 5. Certain periods of the History of the Church of England; 6. The Prayer Book and the Thirty-nine Articles. To which may be added, as an optional subject, Biblical Criticism and Interpretation.
Although for the Final Examination a considerably larger quantity of work is required, yet some students find it the easier of the two. A person with a taste for history and an imperfect knowledge of Latin would probably think the First Year Examination the more formidable. The two books of Cicero are sometimes found to be a serious difficulty; and those who intend entering this course would find it advantageous to make some acquaintance with the De Officiis before entering.
Candidates for Honours in Theology take up the same subjects as candidates for the simple Licence, with the addition of another long Epistle, Hebrew, and certain portions of the Fathers, of English Theologians, and of Ecclesiastical History, fixed from year to year. The amount of work sufficient to secure a First Class can scarcely be done in a year. No Class-list is issued at the First Year Examination; but there is an Exhibition of £30, for which additional work is required.
Graduates (whether of Durham, Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin) entering the Theological Course, begin with the second year. They are not required to pass either the Entrance or the First Year Examination. With their previous training they might aim at Honours in Theology. (For details respecting the Theological Course see Chap. XII.)
SCHOLARSHIPS, EXHIBITIONS, PRIZES,
In proportion to its present numbers the University of Durham is well supplied with endowments of this kind. The annual value of scholarships and exhibitions open to Students in Arts amounts to nearly £1,000. The following statement will make this evident :
Arts Scholarships and Exhibitions. Six Scholarships of £70 a year each, tenable for two years, Two Scholarships of £40 a year each, tenable for two years. Two Scholarships of £30 a year each, tenable for two years.
Two Exhibitions of £20 a year each (for persons of limited means), tenable for two years.
Two Second-year Scholarships of £30 a year each, tenable for one year.
The University Classical Scholarship of £30, tenable for one year.
The University Mathematical Scholarship of £30, tenable for one year.
A Scholarship of_£30, tenable for one year, open to Senior Candidates in the Examination of persons not members of the University.
A Scholarship attached to the Durham Grammar School, of £30 a year, tenable for three years.