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subjects, if he be tolerably well prepared at entrance. He should be very careful to get up thoroughly the work of each term during the term, so as to have no arrears to make up at some later and more convenient season. In Mathematics, more than in any other course of study, nearly every step depends on the preceding one. So that, if any of the earlier subjects or earlier parts of a subject be neglected or slurred over, the consequences to the later reading are often most injurious. Moreover, such“ convenient season” generally recedes as time advances, and the effects of carelessness or inattention at the beginning frequently follow the student during the whole of his course.
It is obvious that attendance at lectures and reading of book work constitute only a small portion of the study of Mathematics. Great attention must be paid to the working out of examples illustrative of the subject under consideration. And much will be gained if the student forms the habit of solving afresh every question which had previously baffled him, after he has seen the solution, but without the aid of any notes which he may have taken. There is no need here to repeat the advice about taking notes given to classical students at page 41. All students may well lay it to heart.
Regularity in the hours of study is almost essential to success. And it is very nearly as important not to err on the side of excess as of defect. Too much or too continuous reading is frequently fatal to real progress. The mind becomes confused and unable clearly to comprehend even the simplest things. The work of the day derives no benefit from too close application; that of the morrow is pretty sure to be still more unsatisfactory. A timetable, and a persistent adherence to it, are of the utmost importance to proper study. Of course the capacity for work is a variable quantity, dependent on nature and constitution, or times and seasons. One man can do without the least injury to himself that which would tax the powers of another to a ruinous extent; he can do at one time easily that which would half kill him at another. This capacity for work can only be learned by experience. Still, however, many warnings are given, generally before the final collapse; and the frequent headaches, the feeling of stupidity, are premonitory symptoms which a student will neglect or despise at his peril. Many a good degree is impaired or ruined by too hard work at the end.
The necessity for not relaxing the attention and application too much scarcely calls for any remarks !
Any advice as to the pass subjects of this examination which may be needed will be found at
The Final Examination for Mathematical Honours takes in a much wider range of subjects than either of the former ones; and no student who is not well advanced when he enters can properly get through the work they entail with less than four terms' reading.
The pass subjects are the same as those required of students for Classical Honours ; and they should if possible be prepared for examination by the end of the fourth term. If they be passed then, the remaining time may be devoted exclusively to the study of the Mathematical subjects for the degree.
These will be found to embrace all the higher parts of the first year's course, and in addition various other branches of study of a deeper and more searching character. It is well that a student during the whole of his residence should seek to be a little in advance of the lecture list in his reading. He will thus be in a better position to grasp with a a more thorough appreciation the mathematical ideas as they are presented to him in the lectures. He will retain more firmly the conceptions which must lose some of their novelty before they can be fully appreciated.
Opportunities of thus to a certain extent forestalling the lectures will generally be presented ; and he will thus have the advantage of some months at the end of his course, in which he will be able thoroughly to revise all the work which he has previously done, and obtain familiarity with the subjects he has studied. During his reading he must expect to meet with many ideas that are strange, and at first hard to comprehend. Such ideas will lose most of their strangeness after being presented a few times to the mind. It is scarcely needful to add that it is more important to understand a difficult subject, or part of a subject, than to learn it. And the time that can be obtained at the end of the course for revision of previous reading is invaluable as a means of letting in this fuller light upon former difficulties and stumbling blocks.
Perhaps & word of advice in the matter of vacations may not be out of season. There will be a considerable amount of time at the disposal of the students during these periods; and the right use of this time will materially affect the final result of his study here.
All the work of the previous term should if possible be carefully revised; and there will often be opportunities for preparing for that of the next term. But it should not be forgotten that these are vacations, and that the major part of the work must be done in term time. Therefore any vacation which does not make the student more ready for the duties of the next term is to all intents and purposes wasted. With this thought as a guiding principle, the happy medium between too much and too little study will be attained without any great difficulty.
We now append a list of books recommended to the use of mathematical students; those being placed first under any subject which in our judgment are most suitable for their wants.
First Year. Arithmetic.
J. H. Smith. 38. 6d. Rivington. Euclid.
Todhunter's. 38. 6d. Macmillan. Geometrical Conics. Besant.
4s. 6d. Bell. Algebra.
J. H. Smith, part I. 3s. Rivington.
Gross, part IV. 8s. 6d. “Rivington. or Todhunter.
78. 6d. Macmillan. Trigonometry. Todhunter.
Macmillan. Analytical Geometry. Puckle.
7s. 6d. Macmillan. Mechanics.
4s. 6d. Macmillan.. Newton. Main.
4s. Bell. or Frost.
Second Year. Algebra.—Todhunter's Theory of Equations. 7s. 6d. Macmillan. Analyt. Geom. --Salmon's Conic Sections. 12s. Longmans. Aldis' Solid Geometry.
Bell. or Frost's
vol. I. 16s. Macmillan. Differential and Integral Calculus
Todhunter's. 10s. 6d. each. Macmillan.
or Williamson's. 10s. 6d. each. Longmans. Mechanics.—Todhunter's Statics.
10s. 6d. Macmillan. Tait and Steele's Dynamics. 12s. Macmillan. Hydrostatics. --Besant's Elementary.
Hydromechanics. 10s. 6d. Bell. Optics.-Aldis' Geometrical Optics.
3s. 6d. Bell. Plane Astronomy.-P. T. Mane's..
48. Bell. The following books may also be consulted with advantage : Deschanel's Natural Philosophy.
18s. Blackie. or Ganot's Physics.
Longmans. Airy's Elementary Astronomy.
4s. 6d. Macmillan. Walton's Examples in Analyt. Geom. 16s. Bell. in Mechanics.
10s. 6d. Bell.
Many of the above books need not be purchased, but may be consulted in the University Library. It is obviously not intended here to present a complete list of the literature on the subject of mathematics, but to direct the student in some way as to the choice of his library.
THE THEOLOGICAL COURSE.
I. EXAMINATIONS.- A Student in Theology is required to pass three examinations; one at the entrance; one at the end of the first year; and the final examination for the Licence in Theology at the end of the second year.
The Entrance Examination.--The terms in which it is usual to enter are the Michaelmas Term and the Epiphany Term. The examination begins on Wednesday, at 9 A.m., and lasts over that and the following day. Under ordinary circumstances the result of the examination would be made known on the Friday or Saturday.
It is possible to compete for scholarships and exhibitions, candidates for which take in an increased number of subjects (see below).
The prizes usually offered at these examinations are as follows:
In October, two Scholarships of £60 a year for two years, and one of £30 a year for two years; one Exhibition of £30 for one year, and two Exhibitions of £20 a year for two years, restricted to candidates of limited means. In January, one Scholarship of £60 a year for two years ; one Exhibition of £30 for one year; one Exhibition of £20 a year for two years, restricted to candidates of limited means.
These prizes are awarded strictly according to the results of the examination; the exhibitions for candidates of limited means being given to those highest on the list who comply with the condition. These latter exhibitions are not published with the rest, but are announced to the successful candidates