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WIRETAPPING AND ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON COURTS, CIVIL LIBERTIES,

AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

NINETY-THIRD CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION

ON

H.R. 1597, H.R. 7773, H.R. 9781, H.R. 9815, H.R. 9973,
H.R.10008, H.R. 10331, H.R. 11629, H.R. 11836, and

H.R. 13825

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COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

PETER W. RODINO, JR., New Jersey, Chairman
HAROLD D. DONOHUE, Massachusetts EDWARD HUTCHINSON, Michigan
JACK BROOKS, Texas

ROBERT MCCLORY, Illinois
ROBERT W. KASTENMEIER, Wisconsin HENRY P. SMITH III, New York
DON EDWARDS, California

CHARLES W. SANDMAN, JR., New Jersey WILLIAM L. HUNGATE, Missouri

TOM RAILSBACK, Illinois JOHN CONYERS, JR., Michigan

CHARLES E. WIGGINS, California JOSHUA EILBERG, Pennsylvania

DAVID W. DENNIS, Indiana JEROME R. WALDIE, California

HAMILTON FISH, JR., New York WALTER FLOWERS, Alabama

WILEY MAYNE, Iowa JAMES R. MANN, South Carolina

LAWRENCE J. HOGAN, Maryland PAUL S. SARBANES, Maryland

M. CALDWELL BUTLER, Virginia JOHN F. SEIBERLING, Ohio

WILLIAM S. COHEN, Maine GEORGE E. DANIELSON, California

TRENT LOTT, Mississippi ROBERT F. DRINAN, Massachusetts

HAROLD V. FROEHLICH, Wisconsin CHARLES B. RANGEL, New York

CARLOS J. MOORHEAD, California BARBARA JORDAN, Texas

JOSEPH J. MARAZITI, New Jersey
RAY THORNTON, Arkansas

DELBERT L. LATTA, Ohio
ELIZABETH HOLTZMAN, New York
WAYNE OWENS, Utah
EDWARD MEZVINSKY, Iowa

JEROME M. ZEIFMAN, General Counsel
GARNER J. CLINE, A880 сiate General Counsel

HERBERT FUCHS, Counsel
HERBERT E. HOFFMAN, Counsel
WILLIAM P. SHATTUCK, Counsel
H. CHRISTOPHER NOLDE, Counsel

ALAN A. PARKER, Counsel

JAMES F. FALCO, Counsel
MAURICE A. BARBOZA, Counsel
FRANKLIN G. POLK, Counsel
THOMAS E. MOONEY, Counsel
MICHAEL W. BLOMMER, Counsel

ALEXANDER B. COOK, Counsel
CONSTANTINE J. GEKAS, Counsel
ALAN F. COFFEY, JR., Counsel

SUBCOMMITTEE ON COURTS, CIVIL LIBERTIES, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF

JUSTICE

ROBERT W. KASTENMEIER, Wisconsin, Chairman GEORGE E. DANIELSON, California TOM RAILSBACK, Illinois ROBERT F. DRINAN, Massachusetts

HENRY P. SMITH III, New York WAYNE OWENS, Utah

CHARLES W. SANDMAN, JR., New Jersey EDWARD MEZVINSKY, Iowa

WILLIAM S. COHEN, Maine
HERBERT FUCHS, Counsel
WILLIAM P. Dixon, Counsel

BRUCE A. LEHMAN, Counsel
THOMAS E. MOONEY, A880ciate Counsel

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CONTENTS

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155

Text of-

Page.

H.R. 1597.

3

H.R. 7773

H.R. 9667.

H.R. 9698

H.R. 9781

H.R. 9815

H.R. 9973.

H.R. 9949

H.R. 10008.

8

H.R. 10331.

9

H.R. 11629

9

H.R. 11838

10

H.R. 13825..

10

Testimony of-

Andrews, Robert, assistant general counsel, Department of Defense..

Bender, William J., administrative director, Constitutional Litigation

Clinic, Rutgers University School of Law

236

Caming, William, attorney, American Telephone & Telegraph Co.--. 178

Cleveland, William, assistant director, Federal Bureau of Investiga-

tion.---

203

Cooke, Hon. David O., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for

Administration, accompanied by Joseph A. Liebling, Deputy

Assistant Secretary of Defense for Security; and Robert Andrews,

Assistant General Counsel, Department of Defense

155

Decker, Andrew, inspector, Federal Bureau of Investigation.

203

Friedman, Leon, and John Shattuck, American Civil Liberties Union,

New York

83

Halperin, Dr. Morton, former National Security Council staffer. 113

Leibling, Hon. Jos. A., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for

Security, Department of Defense ---

155

Long, Hon., Clarence, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Maryland

Maroney, Kevin T., Department of Justice-

124

Miller, Hon. Edward S., Deputy Associate Director, Federal Bureau

of Investigation, accompanied by William Cleveland, Assistant

Director; and Andrew Decker, inspector, Federal Bureau of In-

vestigation.

203

Nelson, Hon. Gaylord, a U.S. Senator from the State of Wisconsin.. 15

Petersen, Hon. Henry E., Assistant Attorney General, Criminal

Division, accompanied by Kevin T. Maroney and Philip White,

Department of Justice-

124

Shattuck, John, American Civil Liberties Union, New York

83

Turner, William, of California; former FBI Agent, private investi-

gator, and author of several books, including "How to Avoid

Electronic Surveillance".

63

White, Philip, Department of Justice --

124

Additional information-

Agency report from Department of Transportation.

274

Cooke , Hon. D.O., Deputy Assistant Secretary for Defense, letter dated

Apr. 19, 1974, to Hon. Robert W. Kastenmeier, Chairman, Sub-

committee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of

Justice

167

Excised copy of a memorandum of John Mitchell furnished to the
District Court by Mr. Calhoun, dated July 14, 1969-

247

Kastenmeier, Hon. Robert W., Chairman, Subcommittee on Courts,

Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice, letter dated

Apr. 10, 1974, to Hon. James R. Schlesinger, Secretary of Defense,

Department of Defense-

166

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WIRETAPPING AND ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 24, 1974

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON COURTS, CIVIL LIBERTIES,
AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE OF THE
COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met at 10 a.m., pursuant to call, in room 2141, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Robert W. Kastenmeier (chairman) presiding.

Present: Representatives Kastenmeier (presiding), Danielson, Drinan, Mezvinsky, Railsback, Smith, and Cohen.

Also Present: Bruce A. Lehman, counsel, and Thomas E. Mooney, associate counsel.

Mr. KASTENMEIER. The subcommittee will come to order.

Other members of the subcommittee will be joining us shortly. The Chair would like to make a statement relative to the hearing which we have before us today.

Privacy is an essential element in the American ideal of liberty, a basic right recognized by the fourth amendment to the Constitution. As Justice Brandeis wrote, each individual's right to privacy is "the most comprehensive of rights, and the right most valued by civilized men."

Within the last several years many citizens have begun to fear that this basic right is being steadily eroded by the use of modern electronic technology to eavesdrop on conversations. Unfortunately, increasing numbers of Americans have begun to fear that Government is more interested in intruding into their private lives than in acting to protect their privacy. A basic purpose of these hearings is to examine the trend toward privacy invasion and to determine what should be done to reassert the right of the individual to be free of Government surveillance.

Until passage of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, the only Federal statute on wiretapping was section 605 of the Federal Communications Act of 1934, which prohibited interception and divulgence of conversations transmitted by wire. The Department of Justice interpreted section 605 to mean that the law was violated only if an intercepted conversion was divulged to outsiders, and the question was never decided by the Supreme Court. It was not until the 1968 act that Congress enacted a comprehensive statute on wiretapping and electronic surveillance.

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