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Augustine: City of God, XII. ; On the Soul and its Origin. Odo Tornacensis: De Peccato Originali. Biblioth. Max., XXI. 229 sq. Aquinas: Summa, II. cxviii. cxix. xci. xcii. Turrettin: Institutio, W. xiii. Maresius: Theologia Elenctica. Controversia X. Howe: Oracles, Part II. Lecture xxxvii. Edwards: Against Watts (Works, III. 533). Hopkins: Works, II. 289. Delitzsch : Biblical Psychology, 128–144. Nitzsch : Christian Doctrine, 3 107. Evelyn: History of Religion, I. 164. Müller: Sin, IV. iii. iv. Philippi: Glaubenslehre, III. 96. Dorner: Christian Doctrine, 383. Gangauf : Psychologie des Augustinus, III. 31–4. Hagenbach: History of Doctrine, 355, 106, 173, 248. Ulrici : Leib and Seele. Hodge : Theology, II. 65 sq. Smith : Christian Theology, 166 sq. Shedd: History of Doctrine, II. 10–25; 114-127; 152–163. Strong: Theology, 328 sq. Baird : Elohim Revealed, XI. Landis : Original Sin, and Gratuitous Imputation. Martensen: Dogmatics, 374.
ANTHRopology (āv.9ptorov Aéryos) includes the topics that relate to man as created and holy, and as apostate and sinful. It excludes those relating to man as regenerate and sanctified, because these belong to redemption, which is a special provision not contained in creation. Man's endowment by creation provided for his actual holiness, and his possible apostasy, but not for his recovery from apostasy. Anthropology comprises only what man is and becomes under the ordinary arrangements of the Creator : what he is by creation, and what he makes himself by self-determination. Man's creation, primitive state, probation, apostasy, original sin and its transmission, are anthropological topics. Anthropology is principally concerned with the doctrine of sin; not because man is ideally and originally a sinner, but because he remained holy but a short time, and consequently his history, apart from redemption, is that of moral evil and its development.
Respecting man's creation, the Westminster Confession, IV. ii., teaches that “God created man male and female, with reasonable and immortal souls.” The first part of this statement is supported by Gen. 1:27, “ Male and female created lie them.” The second part is supported by Gen. 1:26, “ God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness ;” by Gen. 2:7, “God breathed into man's nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul;” by Eccl. 12:7, “ Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was, and the spirit shall return to God who gave it;” and by Matt. 10:28, “Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.”
In this statement, two particulars are to be marked : 1. That man is bisexual. “God created man male and female." This implies that the idea of man is incomplete, if either the male or the female be considered by itself, in isolation from the other. The two together constitute the human species. A solitary male or female individual would not be the species man, nor include it, nor propagate it. In Milton's phrase, “Two great sexes animate the world.”
The angels are sexless. Like man, they were created “ with reasonable and inmortal souls,” but unlike him, they were not "created male and female.” Matt. 22:30, “ They neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God.” Angels being sexless are not a race or species of creatures. They were created one by one, as distinct and
separate individuals. This is proved by the fact that they do not have a common character and history; some remain holy, and some lapse into sin.
2. That the body is of a different nature and substance from the soul. Gen. 2:7,"God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul” (von upd), a breath, or soul of life. According to this statement, man is composed of a material part, resulting from the vivification of the dust of the ground by creative energy, and of an immaterial part resulting from the spiration or imbreathing of God. The Creator first enlivens inorganic inatter into a body, and then creates a rational spirit which he infuses into it. The same difference between body and soul is taught in Eccl. 12:7. The “dust” returns to the earth, and the “spirit” returns to God. Christ “commends his spirit into God's hands," and “and gave up the spirit,” Luke 23:46. Stephen said, “ Lord Jesus receive my spirit,” Acts: 7:59. “Jacob gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost," Gen. 49:33. Job exclaims, “O that I had given up the ghost,” Job 10:18. “The hope of the wicked shall be as the giving up of the ghost,” Job 11:20. “She hath given up the ghost," Jer. 15:9.
In Gen. 1:20, God says, “Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life;" literally, “ Let the waters swarm a swarm of the soul of life” (777 mb)). And in Gen. 1:21 it is said, that “God created every living creature that moveth ;” literally, “God created every living soul of life that creepeth.” See also Gen. 1:24. The irrational animal is liere denominated a “sonl of life" as man is; but it is not added, as in the case of man, that God “breathed” the “soul of life” into him. On the contrary, the origin of animals is associated with the material world alone. When God creates man, he addresses himself : “Let us make man in our image," Gen. 1:26. But when he creates animals, he ad