« ForrigeFortsett »
of particular societies, or of revenues arising from endowments? How are the funds administered by which they are supported?5. What are the buildings appropriated to these schools—more or less spacious, commodious, airy, and adapted to their object? (The places where children are brought up during their first years, exercise a powerful influence on their imagination, and the developement of all their faculties.) 6. What are the circles which these schools embrace—a town or only part of a town, a parish, a borough, a village, or one or more hamlets? 7. In what proportion is the number of these schools to the town, circle, district, &c. in which they are established, and to the whole number of children who attend them? 8. Are there distinct schools for children whose parents are of different religious communions; and what is the proportion between the schools of each communion? 9. If there are distinct schools for children of different religious communions, what difference can be remarked between these schools in regard to their origin and foundation, their organisation and their maintenance, material, (of which the buildings are constructed) site, administration, and expenses, number of pupils proportioned to that of the inhabitants professing the same religion, choice of instructers, instruction and progress of the children, internal discipline, and external superintendence. 10. Are the schools gratuitous or not, or what is the monthly or yearly sum paid for each child?
11. What are the terms of admission to the primary schools?12. Do all the parents send their children to these schools, and are they invited or obliged by legislative measures, or by local regulations to send them? Primary Instructers. 13. What pains are taken to form good instructers of primary schools?
14. What are the conditions of age, country, religion, morality, capacity, which are required for such employment? 15. How, and by what authorities or corporations, or by what individuals, are the nominations made?16. What is the number of instructers in the town, circle, district, &.C.?
17. In what proportion is the number of these instructers to the whole population of the town, &c.?
18. In what proportion to the total number of pupils, and to the pupils in each school? 19. What are the names of the instructers who distinguish themselves most in their employment? What is their age? How long have they been in employment? 20. Generally, do teachers who are young, or those who are more advanced in age, succeed better? 21. Is it the duty of instructers of primary schools to give at fixed periods an account of the condition of the classes which they superintend—of the conduct and the progress of the children? —At what periods, in what form, under what particular relation, are these accounts demanded, and to whom are they addressed? What means are taken to ascertain their correctness? 22. What are the annual salaries of primary instructers? Are these salaries invariably fixed, or casual, and dependent on the number of children?—What is their maximum—What their minimum? What indemnities or particular advantages are allowed them, independently of their fixed salary? Are they properly provided with lodging, airy, light, and warm? Do they receive a certain portion of grain, of wine, or of other provisions? At what sum may these supplements to salary or indemnities be valued?23. How, at what periods, and on what funds, are these salaries, principal or subsidiary?24. Have primary instructers the prospect of a progressive advancement of their salary, or of an advance at a certain stage of their career—whether at the end of a certain number of years of service, or on the ground of their talents or their zeal, or the increase in the number of their pupils? On what foundation rests this augmentation of salary or this promotion? By whom is it proposed, determined, granted? In what does it consist?25. Have they also the prospect of securing a retreat, after a certain number of years'service? What is the number of years? What is the amount of such pension? By whom is it granted and fixed? 26. In case of accidents or infirmities which may oblige an instructer to retire before the time stipulated for a pension, can he at least obtain an indemnity proportioned to the duration and the benefit of his services?
21. Have primary instructers a sufficient guaranty for the preservation of their places, and are they never exposed to an arbitrary destitution?
28. If faulty conduct or discovered incapacity makes it necessary to displace an instructor, how and by whom, is the arrangement ordered?29. Do instructers enjoy a degree of consideration sufficient to render their condition honorable? 30. What are their habitual relations with the parents of their pupils with the magistrates of their town, with the ministers of religion?
31. What is the number of the pupils in the primary schools of the district, &c?
3f2. What is the proportion of the whole number of those pupils to that of the population of the district, &c. 33. What number of pupils is under the charge of the same instruct It?
34. At what age are children admitted to the primary schools? 35. Are children of both sexes admitted into the same school, and till what age? 36. Do children undergo, on their entering the primary school, and during their elementary course, examinations suited to produce an estimation of the developement of their faculties, and the progress of their instruction. How do these examinations take place? 37. Is care taken to divide the children of the same school into several classes or sections, and on what basis is this division determined?38. Are arrangements made which permit the children to aid themselves, and instruct themselves mutually?39. How much time is employed with an ordinary child, to render him familiar with the elements of reading, writing, and calculation?40. At what age do children leave the primary schools? Education Physical and Gymnastic. 41. For how long a time are infants in general nursed in the country—in the city?42. What kind of nourishment is given to some infants instead of the milk of their mothers, and what effects do these aliments produce on the health of children? 43. Do the wealthier citizens commit their infants to nurses or do the mothers themselves attend to the office of nursing.
41. How are infants nourished after being weaned? Till what age are they hindered from eating meat, and drinking wine? 45. What clothing is used for infants f
46. Is it customary to clothe infants slightly, in all seasons; or are they kept warmly clad? 47. How many hours are children permitted to sleep, till they have attained the age of six or eight years; and how are the hours of repose distributed? 48. Are the beds of children hard, in order to invigorate their bodies, or are they soft; and of what are they ordinarily composed? 49. During sleep, is the head covered or bare, and on what ground is a preference given to either practice? 50. Till what age, in cities, do children usually remain under the care of females, and what are the observations made regarding children who have been put under the charge of men, earlier than comports with common usage?51. What attention is given to fortifying children by accustoming them early to the open air, and to cold—and by enuring them to fatigue?
62. What are the ordinary sports of children—whether in the family or at school?53. Are they accustomed to long walks—before or after eating? 54. What success is there in directing and superintending—in an indirect manner without infringing the liberty of children—their exercises and their sports?
55. By what exercises are children rendered agile? Are they taught to use both hands equally?56. Are they frequently bathed in cold water—lake or river—or in warm baths? 57. Are they taught to swim, and at what age? What precautions are used to prevent accidents? 58. What pains are taken about cleanliness and neatness?
69. What are the rules of hygiene (the preservation and promotion of health) generally followed with children? 60. Are the children generally healthy, strong, and robust? 61. What are the maladies most common among children?
6-2. Does the small pox still exist, and is it destructive?63. Is vaccination generally adopted; and for how long a time has the practice existed?64. How many infants generally are in one year affected with severe illness, and of what kind?65. What is the proportion of mortality among children under ten years of age? ,
(Well educated and experienced physicians, and intelligent magistrates, are referred to as proper persons from whom to receive answers to most of the preceding questions.) The author of the pamphlet from which we have translated the foregoing passages, did not anticipate for his work a wider sphere of usefulness, than it might find in Europe. But there seems to be no good reason why his efforts should not extend their influence to America. The very perusal of his questions, will, we think, do much good everywhere. We shall pursue them farther in a future number.
Public Examination* in the English Universities. See No. S. (Continued from p. 374.) I. Translations from Latin prose and poetry into English:
Livii Hist, lib xxvi.—Quod ubi egressus Scipio in tumulum, etc. Cictronis Epist. lib. vi. 18—Simul accepi a Seieuco tuo litleras, etc. PersiiSatir.v. 161—
Dave, cito, hoc credas jubeo, finire dolores Prateritos meditor, etc. Horat. Satir. ii, 8— Ut Nasidieni juvit te cena beati, etc. TacitiHist. iii, 71, 72—Vix dum regresso in Capitolium, etc. II. Greek Prose, to be translated into English: Demosthenes, a-jfj rar it Xtfotxeu—'Ovitu Ql\nrx<n ftaAAa» «' Tjt
»3aiti'i« ro>itf*.u, K. T. A. Xenoph. Hellenic, vi, iv, 3—'p.*« ii Vf|*T» »ym i KJ*ift£(»T*, x. T. A. Platan. Timai, iota, iii p. 36 D.—'Eirii ii X»t* Moi Tb fynirrlm, x. r. A. Herodot. lib. iv. 128—oi ii XxvSiat /3ariA«if, x. r. A. Atheneeus, lib. ix. p. 372 B—XttuJtti ii a** mri, H. T. A. Demosth. de Rhodiorum /t&eWafe—"Epefn» a a*i(n 'AStmtei, «c. T. A. Thucyd. ii. 76—Oi ii IlfXeirmitrui Mr^eyuHi, x. T. A. Aristot. de Rhetor, ii. 11—n«« i"f%tmf £«Aave-<, xai r* ml*, x. r. A. Lysias contra Jgoratum, Reiske, torn, v, 506—IlvtStlnfuu fahrn, *. r. A. Platon. Phcedon, c, 29—T« «u»; loirrm tvrtu i^etrut, x. T. A.
III. Greek Poetry, to be translated into English and Latin prose and verse:
Aristoph. Acharnenses, v. 509 to 550—
"Eytryt iuru pCti Aaxiixiiuiitvf e$ii(x, x. r. A, to be translated into English. Euripid. Baccha, v. 370 to 430—
Xejoj. 'On* iroTi* $««», x. r. A. to be translated into literal English; also into Latin verse.—Give the metrical names of the verses. Sophoclis Trachinia', v. 469 to 529—
Mt-/« n «-$iMc a Kurfif ixipiftrm, x. r. A. to be translated into English prose; also into Latin Lyric verse. Pindar. Olymp. vii, 1 to 31—
QlxZxtt «5 II Tlf i—
ClllZs «TO X"t'f <^*"> X. T. X.
▼0L. I. 52