soon as they please, the making of pens, which enslaves masters of common schools, and is a mystery to most adult females, is a very simple operation in our school. It is never necessary for me to mend one pen. A child who mends her own pen, does not write so well for it, at first; but she soon recovers, and acquires an independence of others, which those only can appreciate who cannot make a good pen. The teaching of Latin was early attempted; but the want of suitable books was a serious obstacle. One introductory book had been published in France. This the instructor translated and used in manuscript. Its object was to remove the disgust which usually attends the study of the Latin grammar. The words of an easy reading book, were classed under their appropriate heads of grammar. Thus, all words ending and declined like penna, were placed under penna, which was declined at length, as a model for the rest. So with all the nouns of the other declensions, verbs, &c. &c. The class were required to decline penna, and every day learn a number of the words of that class, declining each, and giving its English meaning. They also wrote every word on the slate, and on paper. In two or three months, the class became familiarly acquainted with the essentials of the grammar, and a vocabulary of about three thousand Latin roots. The next step was to read the book whose vocabulary had been thus previously studied. This was mere amusement for the pupils. But here our French guide failed; and I had not time to prosecute the plan. I could only pursue the ordinary mode, employing monitors; for a second class had already commenced. The first class has read to me the Historia Sacra, Epitome of Grecian History, Cesar, and part of Virgil. The second class instead of Cesar have just commenced Jacob's Latin Reader, a more suitable book; and both classes have turned into Latin from thirty to eighty pages of the Latin Tutor. Almost every translation has been written as well as read, and corrected by the master and monitors. This obliged every scholar to go over the whole lesson, and was a good exercise in English composition also. I need not here discuss the utility of teaching Latin to females. I was requested to do so by the parents, and believing that it would be a key to the language of every science they might study, a great step towards the acquisition of French, and its other daughters of the south of Europe, and an invaluable aid in the right understanding of English, I opposed no objections, except where the children were too young to begin the study, while the best mode of teaching it is still so imperfectly understood. The useful, and not the merely critical part of Latin, is all I shall endeavor to teach, being persuaded that the time of females may be better employed, than in acquiring a knowledge of niceties, to which even those who have spent their lives in the pursuit, barely attain. In French, the want of suitable books, is sensibly felt. This has prevented the introduction of many improvements. Yielding to circumstances, the scholars were first made acquainted with the leading principles of French pronunciation, by reading in a class after the master. In the mean time they learned enough of the grammar to acquire an idea of the structure of the language, particularly the changes of the variable parts of speech; always comparing them with those of their own language. They then began to translate as well as read. This was done in various ways. Sometimes by my pronouncing a word or sentence, and their pronouncing after me, and giving the English; sometimes by reading in a class, each contributing her stock of information, and only appealing to me in difficult cases; and sometimes by writing translations. They then began to turn English into French, as directed in Wanostrocht's grammar. This was the course pursued with the first French class: they became monitors of the second class, and pursued the seme plan; and these have commenced with a third. A fourth will commence in a few weeks. Bearing in mind that those who have studied French, have likewise studied all the other branches taught in the school, in some cases not excepting Latin, some idea of their industry may be formed from the fact that the first class have gone through the grammar several times, have written a translation of all Chambaud's Fables and half of La Fontaine's, have written a large part of the exercises in the grammar, have read Numa Pompilius twice, once as monitors and once to the master, a part of Gonzalve de Cordoue, and eight or ten numbers, each about 140 pages octavo, of the Annates des Voyages of the celebrated French Geographer Malte Brun;-»-and all this exclusively of what has been read out of school. The progress will be much more rapid and thorough, as the greater number of classes affords more monitorial exercise. No suitable book on astronomy being found, and it being impossible for one person to do every thing, the instructer only painted on cloth such diagrams as were necessary to illustrate the leading principles of the science, explaining them to the scholars in familar lectures, and illustrating them in every possible way by orreries and other apparatus. As a review, each scholar was required to copy the diagrams upon paper, and explain them separately to the teacher. A few lessons were given on pleasant evenings, in the open air; but the want of a convenient place for this purpose was severely felt. From the first establishment of the school, an appropriation has been made for the purchase of apparatus to illustrate the various sciences taught, particularly that of natural philosophy. A com


plete course of lectures has been given to the highest class; and, in all cases, the pupils have performed experiments with their own hands. Indeed, one has acted as monitor while the rest have partly reviewed the instructer's lessons. From seven hundred to one thousand dollars' worth of the best apparatus has already been purchased, with the surplus income of the school. Until the establishment of our school, no private seminaries presumed to illustrate their little text-books of natural philosophy with proper apparatus. It is a pleasing circumstance that several have already felt the necessity of following our example; but the inferiority of individual means to those of a corporation, and the flourishing state of our income, will still secure to us precedence in this respect. (Note 3.)

A class in mineralogy has just commenced its operations, with ample materials; for, in addition to our already valuable collection, our cabinet has been unexpectedly enriched by a very valuable donation of foreign minerals, from William M'Clure, Esq., late of Paris, a gentleman distinguished for his indefatigable geological researches, and his zeal in the cause of human improvement. The minerals are spread before the class, examined, compared, and analysed. Besides this, each child is furnished with a specimen of the mineral under consideration, to form the basis of a little cabinet of her own. I shall omit many exercises subsidiary to those already described, such as reading, spelling, saying the multiplication and other tables all together, an exercise which has a powerful influence upon their habits of order and attention, and is a rapid and pleasing method of reviewing many exercises; for, many pupils who are afraid to speak alone, are emboldened by numbers; and it is no more difficult for the master's ear to detect an error in the multitude of voices, than for a musician to discover a discord in a choir. These exercises also have a powerful effect in banishing that monotony and ennui which so often reign in schools conducted on the common plan. After this tedious enumeration of my labors, you will be surprised to hear that not the least important branch remains to be mentioned, I mean general instruction. It has been my incessant care on every occasion, and on every subject within the scope of my own knowledge, to inculcate useful information. To enable myself to lose no opportunity of doing this, my intercourse with my pupils has been as familiar as that of a parent. No magisterial dignity has prevented the approach of the most timid child; and a perfect knowledge of all their little peculiarities has been the pleasing consequence. I am aware that such a state of things is supposed to be incompatible with the rigid discipline expected in large schools; but the experience of two years has satisfied me that it is as yet unnecessary to assume the circumstance and terror which have been considered the inseparable attributes of a good pedagogue. After this particular description of the exercises, lest their variety and number should leave upon the mind an idea of confusion and disorder, some description of the general principles upon which the exercises are conducted, may be necessary. In the first place, then, no pupil is allowed to be idle; and it is the duty of the master so to arrange the lessons, that a class shall be continually under his care; and that class must not contain one of the monitors whose turn it is to be on duty. To enable him to do this, there is a set time for every recitation of every class. Monitors of arithmetic, for instance, recite to the master, and then go to teach arithmetic classes. While they are doing this, the monitors of grammar recite to the master, and are ready to teach classes, by the time the arithmetic classes have finished their exercise. While the monitors of grammar are teaching their classes, the monitors of geography are reciting to the master, and are ready to teach their classes, as soon as the classes are dismissed by their grammar monitors. In this way, a constant succession of fresh monitors is provided ; and the frequent change of exercises, prevents the children from being fatigued. There is a different classification in every branch of study; and, in classing the pupils in one branch, no regard is paid to their rank in another. Hence it not unfrequently happens that a monitor of reading teaches her monitor of arithmetic, or a monitor of spelling has in her class her own monitor in geography. In this way, every child has a fair chance to rise, if her genius leads to excellence in any thing. In common schools, a good arithmetician or reader cannot be first in the class, unless she is superior in every other branch studied by her class. It may be worth our while here to compare the amount of practice obtained by each child in our school, with that of schools on the common plan. Let it be premised that the master is, during the time of school, as busily engaged as any master on the other plan can be. Our school consists, say, of eighty pupils, who attend five hours in the day, not including the afternoon school taught by a female. Five hours, supposing the master never to be interrupted in his labors, and the scholars allowed no recess, will, on the old plan, give each the personal attention of the master, just three minutes and three quarters. But, if the master be interrupted, all the exercises must stop of course. On the monitorial plan, supposing the classes to consist of six, each child will be actually practising fifty minutes; and, if the master is interrupted, the exercises of the school go on, as if nothing had happened. But even this estimate falls far short of the truth; for in some exercises, writing vol.. I. G

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on slate or paper, for instance, every child is engaged all the lime. To this should be added the extraordinary attention required in suchsmall classes, compared with that of large ones. If, in a school of only eighty pupils, the advantage is so much in our favor, it will be doubled in a school of one hundred and sixty, and so on. (To be continued.)

JREVIEWS. A Sermon delivered on tlie twenty-fifth anniversary of the Boston Female Asylum, Sept. 23, 1825. By F. W. P. Greenwood. Boston, 1825. pp. 20. The Duties of an American citizen. Two discourses delivered in the First Baptist Meetinghouse in Boston, on Thursday, April 7, 1825, the day of Public Fast. By Francis Wayland, Jr. Second Edition. Boston, 1825. pp. 48. We take up these publications together, not because they are naturally connected by subject or by occasion—the topics of a political fast can have little in common with a charity for female orphans—but because they afford a striking illustration of the state of the times, and of the strong hold which the great subject of education has upon the attention of society. They indicate how much it is a universally engrossing concern, when occasions of every sort are caused to bend to it, and topics of the most opposite character are made to meet in this. A few years since, the anniversary of an asylum for female orphans, would have merely called for an exposition of the duty and beauty of charity, in order to warm the hearts of the audience to an immediate almsgiving. But now, it opens before the preacher the vast field of universal education; and he incites the hearers to high emotions and large views, and makes them to see in the occasion, not only an opportunity of relieving a few defenceless children, but one link in that lengthening chain of civilisation and happiness, which is yet to bind together all the scattered families of man. Time was when the recurrence of the annual fast led not a step beyond exhortations to repentance, and denunciation of sin. If politics were made the theme, it was a denunciation of the government or the opposition, and led the mind but very little higher than the ordinary newspaper disquisitions of the week. But now, the preacher extends himself to a survey of the general politics of the world, and the prospects they

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