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them from these three classes declaim before the President in the chapel; when the necessary remarks are made on their pronunciation, attitude, gesture, and manner of delivery. The price of tuition is thirty-six dollars per annum, and one dollar annually for the use of the library, payable semi-annually in advance. Each class recites three times a day, viz. immediately after morning prayers, (to which the students are summoned at sunrise by the ringing of the bell,) at 11 o'clock A. M. and at 4 P. M. The forenoon of Saturday is spent by the two societies in their respective halls, for the purpose of literary improvement. As a generous emulation subsists betwixt them, they are regarded as valuable auxiliaries to the Institution. A strict regard to moral duties, as well as diligent attention to study, is required of the students by the laws of the University. The punishments to be inflicted for the violation of any law, are entirely addressed to the sense of honor and shame, and proportioned to the nature and aggravation of the offence: they are admonition, private, or public, supension, dismission, or expulsion. In 1820, the Legislature granted two thousand dollars for the purpose of erecting a frame building to accommodate a school preparatory to admission into college. This seminary is placed under the immediate instruction and care of two tutors, and has been by the Trustees subjected to the superintendence of the President. The tuition in this preparatory academy is without cost to the pupils. The tutors receive each a salary of $800 out of the funds of the University; and as a number are annually prepared in this branch for entering college, it has proved an excellent auxiliary and nursery to the institution. It consists at present of about sixty pupils. The following are the officers of instruction at this time, 1826, viz.
Moses Waddel, D. D. President. Reverend Alonzo Church, A. M. Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy. Henry Jackson M. D. Professor of Natural Philosophy and Botany. James Jackson, A. M. Professor of Chemistry, Mineralogy and the French language. Ephraim S. Hopping, A. M., Alvin Lathrop, A. !>., tutors in college. Moses W. Dobbins, Ebenezer Newton, tutors of the preparatory academy. The whole number of trustees 17; who, together with the senators of the different counties of the state, constitute the Senatus Academicus. All college laws and the appointments of all officers must be confirmed by this body. Their annual meeting, at which the governor presides, is held at the seat of government on the second Monday in November, during the session of the Legislature.
M. M-A. JULLIEN'S QUESTIONS ON COMPARATIVE EDUCATION. (See last Number.) Moral and Religious Education. 66. As particular attention paid to the devclopement of the moral faculties, and to religious instruction—whether in the family or at school?67. How are children taught submission, respect, and obedience, to their parents and their superiors, and how are they induced to love them? Is severity or mildness employed for these purposes? (The exciting of fear is exceedingly injurious to the moral developement of children, to their character, and their mind.) 68. How are they led to goodness, beneficence, humanity?69. What are the moral sentiments which are most carefully cherished in them,—filial piety, fraternal affection, benevolence to mankind, and especially to the unfortunate? 70. What are the moral habits with which pains are taken to render children familiar—obedience and docility, the spirit of order, force of character and will, combined with a reflecting submission to the orders of persons of greater age and judgement? 71. Is care taken to surround children constantly with good examples which they may be induced to imitate?72. By what means are children early rendered hardy and courageous? 73. Is it customary to terrify them with stories of witches, ghosts, and other apparitions—or are they taught to put no faith in such ridiculous fables, and to remain alone in the dark without fear?74. What means are made use of to correct infants subject to anger?75. What measures are taken to correct those who manifest a certain disposition to cruelty, or to the destruction of things which they know to be useful?76. How are children inspired with an abhorrence of falsehood, and are they encouraged to speak the truth? 77. How is idleness prevented or corrected, and how are children early habituated to labor, without causing in them a repugnance to it? 78. Do mothers exercise a great influence upon the primary moral education of their children; and how is this influence directed?79. What difference may be remarked in the proportion of this influence, as exercised in the poor, and in the rich classes?80. What course is taken in religious instruction? Is this course uniform in all schools, or is it left to the will of each instructer?
81. Are positive and dogmatic lessons employed, (often wearisome and repulsive, by wearing too severe a form)—or familiar conversation adapted to the capacity of infancy, and of which the subjects are drawn from the ordinary circumstances of life, to convey to children the first elements of religion and morality, or of their duties toward God, their parents, themselves, their equals, and their country?82. In religious instruction is recourse had to teaching and explaining a catechism—to precepts, to dogmas, to ceremonies, to exterior forms; or are means taken to penetrate the mind of children, to lay solid internal foundations for their religious belief, to form conscience, to develope and fortify by the double power of habit and example, the moral character,—true piety, a disposition to benevolence, to toleration, to christian charity?83. What is the internal regime of the primary schools? Is their discipline mild, benevolent, paternal, or harsh and severe?84. What are the most common faults, and what are the punishments which are used? What moral effect do these punishments appear to produce?85. How are rewards employed to incite children to good? What is the nature of these rewards, and what is their mora, effect? 86. Is regard had in the distribution of these rewards to good conduct more than to progress in study,—and to the continuance of that progress observed during a certain space of time, rather than to a success owing to circumstances which is often fortuitous and momentary, obtained in a particular exercise or in an examination?
87. Are sums of money, medals, exterior marks of distinction awarded? Does the distribution of them take place in a public and formal manner?88. Is recourse had to emulation* to excite the love of study, and in what manner is it made use of? 9
89. Have pains been taken to keep emulation from degenerating into rivalry,—and producing in children on the one hand the first sentiments of vanity, pride, and ambition, and on the other painful impressions of discouragement, disgust, and envy?90. Are measures used to displace emulation by a motive more pure, less dangerous, by the inducement presented, whether to the practice of a virtue, or to the acquisition of additional knowledge, * The author here refers in a note to the views of M. Feuillet in favor of emulation, as stated in his Memoire crowned by the French Academy, 1800 or 1801; and to those of M. Jean-Baptiste Brun, ex-professor of sciences and belles lettres, who has written forcibly and eloquently against the principle of emulation.
and by the inward satisfaction which the child ought to find in the consciousness of his good conduct, of his powers and his progress, in proportion as he exercises and developes his moral character and his intelligence? Intellectual Education. 91. How is the first education of the senses and the organs directed from the very cradle? With what objects is care taken to surround infants for the purpose of exercising them to see, to touch, to hear, to think?—What are the first exercises of observation and of language?
92. At what age are children ordinarily taught to read, to write, to count; and what is the method regarded as the most easy?93. What are the branches of instruction in which children are usually taught at the primary schools?—Are most of these schools confined to reading, writing, and arithmetic; or do they embrace some elementary notions of grammar, of vocal music, of geometrical drawing, of geometry and surveying, of practical mechanics, of the geography and history of their country, of the anatomy of the human body, of practical hygiene, of the natural history of those productions of the earth which are most useful to man?—(The elements of all these sciences,—as essential to every individual, in every condition, and in all the circumstances of life,—ought to form a part in a complete system of primary and common instruction, perfectly adapted to the true wants of man in our present state of civilisation and improvement.) 94. How are lessons given?—to all the children assembled in a body, or to small divisions according to their comparative ability and their progress in intelligence?95. Is any particular method of instruction adopted which has been simplified and perfected?—To what branches of elementary instruction is it applied?—In what does it consist? 96. Is use made generally in the country or only in certain places of the new method of mutual instruction, received from England, and knowifby the names of its inventors, Messrs. Bell and Lancaster? In what schools is it used? 97. Is use made of the method of elementary instruction, in arithmetic, practised with success by M. Pestalozzi in his institution,—or of any other method of the same kind, whether in arithmetic or the other branches of instruction.
98. Is use made of the analytic method at once ingenious, instructive, and amusing, of M. l'abbe Gualtier for instruction in grammar, geography, &c? 99. What are the first elementary books which are pat into the hand? of children?
100. Are children made to learn lessons by heart, and in that case are they made to repeat mechanically what they have learned, or, rather, are they exercised in giving an account of what they have learned and in repeating it?—and is there a desire to fix things themselves in the understanding, rather than words in the memory?101. What efforts are made to develope, and exercise in children, in a manner imperceptibly progressive, first, the power of attention, the primary faculty, and the parent of all the rest; then the faculty of comparison; finally that of reasoning.
102 How long do the lessons and the classes continue, every day; and for how many months of the year?—How are they arranged by hours in winter and in summer?103. Between the classes or between the lessons given by the masters, have the children one or two hours personal instruction, in giving account of the lessons they have received? 104. What is the ordinary length of a complete course of the primary schools?
105. What differences may be remarked between the primary schools of the cities and those of country places? Are the last-mentioned frequented in summer as well as in winter? If they are suspended, what remedies are used for the inconveniences resulting from this interruption, which exposes children to lose in one half of the year all the benefit of the lessons which they may have received in the other half? 106. Are there annual vacations?—At what seasons do they take place?—How long do they last?—How do children usually employ this interval of time? Domestic and Private Education, in its connection with the system of Primary
107. How far is the education which is commenced and continued by parents, in the family, in harmony or in opposition with the education and the instruction given in the primary and public schools?108. Do the masters of these schools concert measures with parents for the direction of the infants which are committed to them? 109. On what footing are children placed with their parents, in families,—with their instructers and their companions, in the public schools? 110. Do parents and instructers endeavor to make themselves loved rather than feared'—or are the one mild and kind, whilst the other show themselves harsh and severe?—In this case, what appears to be the effect of the apparent contrast? Primary and Common Education in its connections with, secondary education and with the dcsttnalton of children.
111. Are efforts made to establish a harmony between the first