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he would have seen the spot of earth which he had destined and bequeathed to the use and benefit of his country, as the site for an university, still bare and barren.'
Proceedings of Congreti on the above subject. On motion of Mr. Ruggles, the part of the President's Message which relates to a National University, was referred to a select Committee, with instructions, if expedient, to report the principles on which it ought to be established, and a plan of organisation that will embody these principles. EDUCATION IN THE STATE OF NEW-YORK. Extract from Goo. Clinton's Message, Jan. 3, 1826. The first duty of government, and the surest evidence of good government, is the encouragement of education. A general diffusion of knowledge is the precursor and protector of republican institutions, and in it we must confide as the conservative power that will watch over our liberties and guard them against fraud, intrigue, corruption, and violence. In early infancy, education may be usefully administered. In some parts of Great Britain, infant schools have been successfully established, comprising children from two to six years of age, whose tempers, hearts, and minds are ameliorated, and whose indigent parents are enabled, by these means, to devote themselves to labor without interruption or uneasiness. Our common schools embrace children from five to fifteen years old, and continue to increase and prosper. The appropriations for last year from the school fund amount to $80,670; and an equivalent sum is also raised by taxation in the several school districts, and is applied in the same way. The capital or fund is $1,330,000 which will be in a state of rapid augmentation from sales of the public lands and other sources. And it is well ascertained that more than 420,000 children have been taught in our common schools during the last year. The sum distributed by the state is now loo small, and the general fund can well warrant an augmentation to $120,000 annually. An important change has taken place in the free schools of New-York. By an arrangement between the corporation of that city and the trustees of the Free-School society, these establishments are to be converted into common schools, to admit the children of the rich as well as of the poor, and by this annihilation of factitious distinctions, there will be a strong incentive for the display of talents, and a felicitous accommodation to the genius of republican government. In these seminaries, the monitorial system has been always used, and it has in other institutions been applied with complete success to the higher branches of education. Our system of instruction, with all its numerous benefits, is still, however, susceptible of great improvement. Ten years of the life of a child may now be spent in a common school. In two years, the elemerits of instruction may be acquired; and the remaining eight years must be spent either in repetition or in idleness, unless the teachers of common schools are competent to instruct in the higher branches of knowledge. The outlines of geography, algebra, mineralogy, agricultural chemistry, mechanical philosophy, surveying, geometry, astronomy, political economy, and ethics, might be communicated in that period of time by able preceptors without essential interference with the calls of domestic industry. The vocation of a teacher, in its influence on the characters and destinies of the rising and all future generations, has either not been fully understood, or not duly estimated. It is, or ought to be, ranked among the learned professions. With a full admission of the merits of several who now officiate in that capacity, still it must be conceded, that the information of many of the instructors of our common schools does not extend beyond rudimental education—that our expanding population requires constant accessions to their numbers—and that to realise these views, it is necessary that some new plan for obtaining able teachers should be devised. 1 therefore recommend a seminary for the education of teachers in the monitorial system of instruction, and in those useful branches of knowledge which are proper to engraft on elementary attainments. A compliance with this recommendation will have the most benign influence on individual happiness and social prosperity. To break down the barriers which poverty has erected against the acquisition and dispensation of knowledge, is to restore the just equilibrium of society, and to perform a duty of indispensable and paramount obligation: and under this impression I also recommend that provision be made for the gratuitous education in our superior seminaries, of indigent, talented, and meritorious youth. I consider the system of our common schools as the palladium of our freedom; for no reasonable apprehension can be entertained of its subversion, as long as the great body of the people are enlightened by education. To increase the funds, to extend the benefits, and to remedy the defects of this excellent system, is worthy of your most deliberate attention. The officer who now so ably presides over that department, is prevented by his official duties, from visiting our schools in person, nor is he indeed clothed with this power. A visitatorial authority, for the purpose of detecting abuses in the application of the funds, of examining into the modes and plans of instruction, and of suggesting improvements, would unquestionably be attended with the most propititious effects. FEMALE HIGH-SCHOOL OF NEW-YORK. The success of the High-School for boys having been entirely satisfactory, a considerable number of stockholders were anxious that a similar institution should be provided for Females. A meeting of the Society was therefore called, and it was unanimously resolved to purchase ground, and erect a building of dimensions sufficient to accommodate 400 scholars. The trustees have accordingly purchased a lot 72 feet by !00, in Crosby, near Spring-street, in the vicinity of the edifice for Boys, on which they have erected a brick building of three stories, 44 feet by 60. The cost of the ground, the building, and its furniture, will be about $18,000.
Mr. Owen, whose plans for the melioration of society, have of late excited considerable interest in this country, has instituted, at his settlement of New-Harmony, (Indiana,) a school similar to that which attracted so much attention at his establishment in New-Lanark, (Scotland.) An account of this school will be given in an early number of our work. EDUCATION IN MASSACHUSETTS. Extracifrom Governor Lincoln's Message, January 4, 1826. The cause of education and learning, can never unappropriated be presented to the favorable regard of the representatives of a free people. Various propositions for its advancement, by the establishment and endowment of institutions for qualifying teachers of youth, for instruction in the physical sciences, in agriculture, and in the whole circle of the arts, have been recently brought before the public, and will solicit the fostering patronage of the legislature. It can be with no gratifying reflections to the descendents of the pilgrim founders of the college, and the free schools of Massachusetts, that they find themselves constrained, by the state of the finances of the commonwealth, to deny to these high objects, the only effectual provision for their encouragement. Will not this humbling consideration serve as an incentive to devise some more ample resources for a revenue to the state, that thus, the solemn and imperative injunctions in the constitution upon 'legislatures and magistrates, in all periods of the commonwealth, to cherish the interests of literature and the sciences, and all seminaries of them, public schools and grammar schools in the towns, to encourage private societies, public institutions, rewards and indemnities for the promotion of agriculture, arts, sciences, commerce, trade, manufactures, and a natural history of the country,' may be faithfully and efficaciously observed. A present appropriation and pledge of a proportion of the proceeds of future sales of the public lands, would, at no very distant day, ensure a liberal fund for those objects. AGRICULTURAL SEMINARY. We are happy to understand that the establishment of an agricultural seminary, on a plan worthy of the State of Massachusetts, is
Bow under tbe consideration of the legislature. This is a subject deeply interesting to the community; and we shall embrace the first opportunity of presenting to our readers the proceedings of the legislature regarding it. FEMALE HIGH-SCHOOL OF BOSTON. This school will probably go into operation about tbe end of the present month. In our next number we shall lay before our readers the plan of this interesting seminary. LECTURES ON THE PHYSIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF MAN.
Poppi Ah lectures we regard as a branch of adult education which may be rendered very conducive to the dissemination of knowledge. We are happy therefore in having it in our power to mention the above lectures. They are delivered twice a week at the Pantheon Hall, by Drs. Ware and Bradford of this city, (Boston.) The following are among the topics which these gentlemen have selected: food, digestion, circulation, respiration, structure of the eye, of the ear, voice, speech, the senses, the brain, sleep, &c. GYMNASIUM. From a Correspondent.
'Allow one whose feelings are deeply interested in the objects of your Journal of Education, to propose the consideration of Physical Education, as practically treated and conducted by the German literati and also by Mr. Voelker, (if I recollect right,) in London. I earnestly hope as an invalid myself, and connected with those very dearly who are so, that you will take measures to procure and diffuse such information as will induce some person,—if possible a German, bred thoroughly in the science—to establish a Gymnasium in Boston and at Cambridge.'
Our correspondent will perceive, by our present number, that the subject of gymnastic exercises is frequently brought forward in our pages. It occurs in the article on infant schools, in the extract from Dr. Griscom's work, and is expressly introduced in the article on physical education, contributed by an individual who has long attended to this subject, and whose communications, we are happy to add, will be continued, till all the information that can be desired, shall be fully laid before the public. Suggestions such as those of our present correspondent, shall always meet with respectful attention. Our earnest desire is to devote our Journal, our time, and our best services, to every department of education. RECENT PUBLICATIONS, DESIGNED FOR THE PURPOSES OF EDUCATION.
Hints To Parents: in two parts. Part I.—On the cultivation of children. Part II.—Exercises for exciting the attention, and strengthening the thinking powers of children, in the spirit of Pestalozzi's method. Reprinted, Salem, 1825. 12mo. pp. 72. The idea with which this little work sets out, cannot be too often repeated. 'From an early domestic developement of hand, Head, and Heart, the happiest results may be expected.'—This book is a manual which may be very serviceable to mothers, if they attend properly to one suggestion of the work itself: 'It is the Spirit and not the letter, of the system here recommended, at which the parent should aim.' The American Instructer, calculated to succeed the English and other spelling-books: Containing a Selection of the principal part of the Words in common use, divided, accented, defined, and their pronunciation accurately pointed out,—adapted to the orthography and pronunciation of Walker: Interspersed with instructive and entertaining Reading Lessons. To which is added a comprehensive Abridgment of English Grammar. By Rensselaer Bentley. Troy, 1825. pp. 238. This volume, if kept in its proper place, may be a useful school-book. Its value, however, must depend entirely on its being made the introduction to a larger dictionary, a wider range of reading lessons, and a more comprehensive treatise on grammar. Used as the author seems to have intended it should be, it will certainly serve a better purpose than any other work of the same class. An Introduction to Linear Drawing, translated from the French of M. Framecur, and adapted to the use of public schools in the United States. By William B. Fowle, Instructer of the Monitorial School, Boston. Boston, 1825. 12mo. pp. 64. Whatever trains the eye to precision in the perception of form, or the hand to neatness and facility of execution, creates minuteness and force of attention, and favors clearness and correctness of thought. It is with much pleasure, therefore, that we take notice of this excellent little treatise, which bids fair to hold a respectable rank among useful works devoted to education. Adam's Latin Grammar abridged, and arranged in a course of Practical Lessons, adapted to the capacity of Young Learners. Second edition. New-Haven, 1825. This is an attempt to facilitate the study of Latin grammar by the application of the inductive method. The arrangement is strictly analytical, and of course varies (rom the common plan. The author relies much on frequent repetition in various forms. Numerous and minute questions are accordingly subjoined to every lesson. The explanations, which are very copious, are on the plan of the