tions, and 5,000 manuscripts; Wolfenbuttel, 109,000 printed books, chiefly ancient, 40,000dissertations, and 4,000 manuscripts; Stuttgard, 170,000 volumes, and 12,000 Bibles; Berlin has seven public libraries, of which the Royal Library contains 160,000 volumes, and that of the Academy, 30,000; Prague, 110,000 volumes; Gratz, 105,000 volumes; Frankfort, on the Maine, 100,000 volumes; Hamburgh, 100,000 volumes; Breslau, 100,000 volumes; Weimar, 95,000; Mentz, 90,000; Darmstadt, 85,000; Cassel, 60,000; Gotha, 60,000; Marbourg, 55,000; Mell, in Austria, 35,000; Heidelberg, 30,000; Werningerode, 30,000; Newburg, in Austria, 25,000; Kremsmunster, 25,000; Augsburg 24,000; Meiningen, 24,000; New Strelitz, 22,000; Saltsbourg 20,000; Magdeburgh, 20,000; Halle, 20,000; Landshut, 20,000

Thus it appears that thirty cities in Germany possess, in their public libraries, greatly beyond three millions, either of works or printed volumes, without taking into account the academical dissertations, detached memoirs, pamphlets, or the manuscripts. It is to be observed, likewise, that these numbers are taken at the very lowest estimate. VII.— Poland. The King's library at Warsaw, contains about 25,000 volumes, most of which are modern. The university of Cracow has a library, in which are 4000 manuscripts. A valuable and extensive collection of books called the library of the republic, or Zaluski Library, was formed and devoted to the public by two brothers of that name in 1745: but no funds were appropriated, either for its enlargement or suitable preservation. Originally, it consisted of 300,000 volumes, comprising 52,000 duplicates; from the sale of the duplicates, and from other circumstances, the collection was supposed, in 1791, not to exceed 200,000 volumes, while its value was not proportioned to its size. Having suffered many depredations, it was at length sent by General Suwarrow to St. Petersburg in 1795, where it was deposited in three elegant apartments, and opened for the use of the public in 1812. VIII.—Libraries in France. [From Rechcrchet sur lea Sibliolheques anriennes et modernei, par M. Petit Radel.]

In Paris there are five public libraries, besides almost forty special ones. The royal library contains about 450,000 volumes of printed books, besides nearly an equal number of tracts collected into volumes, and about 80,000 manuscripts. The library of the arsenal, about 150,000 volumes, and 5,000 manuscripts; the library of St. Genevieve, about 110,000 volumes, and 2,000 manuscripts; the magazine library, about 92,000 volumes, and 3,137 manuscripts; and the city library, about 20,000 volumes. In the Provinces, the most considerable are those of Lyons, 106, 000; Bourdeaux, 105,000; Aix, 72,670; Besancon, 53,000; TouLouse, (two) 50,000; Grenoble, 42,000; Tours, 30,000; Metz, 31,000; Arras, 34,000; Lemans, 41,000; Colmar, 30,000; VerSailles, 40,000; Amiens, 40,000. The total number of these libraries in France amounts to 273; of above 80, the quantity of volumes they contain is not known. From the data given, in this work, it appears that the general total of those which are known amounts to 3,345,287 volumes; of which there are 1,125,347 in Paris alone.

• IX.—Denmark. The Royal Library at Copenhagen is computed to contain between 3 and 400,000 printed books, and many volumes of manuscripts. At the sale of the fine library of Count Otto Thot, amounting to 116,395 volumes, exclusive of pamphlets, manuscripts and incunabula, the Royal library obtained an accession of 50,000 volumes; and the Count, by his will, had bequeathed to it 4,154 manuscripts, with his valuable collection of 6,159 works that had been printed before the year 1530. In 1799 the Danish government bought up the library of Luxdorf, rich in classical works and in manuscripts, and it was annexed to the Royal library. It afterwards received valuable acquisitions at the sale of the libraries of Oeder, Holmskiold, Rottboll, Ancher; and others, in 1789, 90, 91, 93, 94, and 98. In 1796 an accession was made of the immense library of Suhm, the historian. He had collected in the course of fifty years, 100,000 volumes, which he left to the disposition of the public. A little before his death he presented them to the Royal Library. X.—Switzerland. The public library at Zurich contains 25,000 volumes, and some curious manuscripts. XI.—Spain.

The- Royal library at Madrid founded by Philip V. in 1712, and enlarged by the succeeding monarchs, now consists of more than 200,000 volumes, besides a great number of valuable Arabic manuscripts. The'library is open to the public, at stated hours, every day in the week.—The library of San Isidro, containing 60,000 volumes, is open to the public every day except holydays. The library of San Fernando is open to the public three days in a week. The library of the Escurial is computed to contairyibout 130,000 printed volumes, and 4,300 manuscripts; of these latter 567 are Greek, 67 Hebrew, and 1800 Arabic.

XII.—Italy. The Vatican Library at Rome, was founded by Nicholas IV. who was elected to the papal chair in 1 177. He supplied it with many manuscripts from Greece. Sixtus V. spared no pains on its embellishment; nor was it neglected by any of the Popes down to Pius VI. Some of its most valuable acquisitions came from the collection of the Elector Palantine, which was taken in 1662 by the duke of Bavaria, who presented it to Urban VIII. Queen Christina of Sweden also had collected 1900 manuscripts, which, on her decease descended to the chief of the Ottoboni family, afterwards Pope Alexander VIII. who deposited them in the Vatican. The exact number of books found here is not known, as there is no printed catalogue of the Library: it is generally estimated that there are 400,000 printed volumes, and 50,000 manuscripts ; among the latter are some of great antiquity. The library is contained in a gallery 214 feet long, and 48 broad, and in other apartments, superbly decorated by the hands of eminent painters. This library is divided into three portions, one is public, whither all men resort on two days of the week; another of more difficult access; and into the third none are admitted but by special privilege. There are several other extensive libraries in the city; that of the Barberini contains 60,000 printed volumes, and several thousand manuscripts. The Colonna Library, distinguished by about 400 volumes of books and engravings of the fifteenth century; and the Library of the Roman College, wherein are contained the library and museum of the celebrated Kircher. The Medicean Library at Florence is deposited in a spacious edifice, designed by Michael Angelo. It consists of above 90,000 printed volumes, and 3,000 valuable manuscripts. The latter have been described in a catalogue of eleven folio volumes, by Assemanni, Biscioni, and Bandini; and 3,000 volumes printed in the fifteenth century, are also described in two folio volumes. There are libraries at Bologna, Milan, Mantua, Pisa and Venice, of which our limits prevent our giving an account. SUGGESTIONS TO PARENTS. Early Intellectual Education.

[The following article is extracted from the Christian Monitor, published at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and edited by J. M. Keagy, M. D. a gentleman who is extensively known as a zealous friend to the improvement of education. The Monitor is one of those papers we have mentioned as containing a distinct department for the sub

ject of education. Of the respectable manner in which this part of Dr. Keagy's labors is sustained the subsequent paragraphs are a fair specimen.] The usual plan of teaching to read without thought, has its origin in the use of the spelling book; and this is the greatest barrier Mote existing to intellectual improvement. 'The great reason,' as a sensible, though sarcastic writer observes, 'why men in general are so ignorant, is, that they were taught by this mechanical method,'—a method, we would add, which, like the destructive mildew, has blasted the unfolding germs of many a rising genius. A question of the following kind may now be started, ' If the spelling book be given up, what is then to be done?' The answer is simply this, that a method of teaching should be introduced, which, possessing none of the disadvantages animadverted on, includes in itself the means of improving all the faculties of the human understanding. The outlines of such a method we shall make a feeble effort to pourtray.

Domestic or preparatory education should as before stated, be conducted by oral instruction. The innocent inmate of the nursery should not be harrassed with a horn book, by which to learn his alphabet. Rather let his attention be fixed on objects that meet his senses: let him be taught the sensible properties of things that engage his attention. This will give him an intellectual hold on the surrounding universe; and his mind, by employing the lever of language will daily gain new strength. Let him be taught the names of all the parts of an individual object, and as much as possible its history and the uses to which it may be applied. But his knowledge should, for some time, be confined chiefly to notices derived directly through his sensations, which may be denominated positive knowledge; and let his knowledge of relations as well as abstract ideas be left untouched until he shall be able to apprehend them. The reason why relative knowledge should be left to succeed positive, is that the former is dependent on the latter; for the knowledge of relations cannot be acquired until the knowledge of objects is familiar. Besides, a knowledge of the sensible properties of things may be acqured a.s readily at the age of five years as at any future period. By pursuing a course of this kind, a child would possess qualifications for entering school at the age of six or seven years, of a very different character from what we generally meet with. He would have been taught to think, and to bind his volatile ideas to appropriate words. His subsequent progress would be rapid and agreeable.

Such a method is not so difficult to put into effectual operation Vol. I. 8.0

aa some may think; for it could be pursued by any mother of good common sense. There is no need of going far for subjects. A chair, or a table, a peach, or an apple, a cup or a saucer, a bean, or a pebble, would form ample subjects to interest and instruct a child of four years of age. When we reflect on the condition of women and their relation to society, we cannot help perceiving the immense influence they possess and exert in all civilised nations. 'Men make laws, but women make manners,' has long ago become an adage; and if it is true that laws are ineffectual, where the manners and customs of a people are opposed to them, we shall see the high value we should set on female education. We feel no hesitation in hazarding the opinion, that of all human beings, the female sex ought to be the best educated. This would secure the morals of society, and ensure a race of enlightened and virtuous citizens. The first years of children are spent under the eye and in thecompany of their mother. Boys, until they are ten or twelve years old, and girls, until they marry, may be said to be under the management of their mother. How necessary is it therefore that the minds of women should be well cultivated; especially when we recollect that early impressions and habits, whether moral or intellectual are hardly ever effaced! If mothers are wise and prudent, their children will in general be the same. It has been remarked by persons of the greatest observation, that most men who have been eminent for learning and piety have owed the germs of that eminence to their mothers. Men are but children of a larger growth; and our dispositions and habits in after life are nothing more than the developement of those principles which were imbibed during our tender years. How important that these should be correct! With these observations as general points, we will notice some of the branches of study that might employ the attention of females. An accurate knowledge of their own language, ought to be an object of primary attention in the instruction of females. By this we are far from meaning the mere mechanical knowledge of the principles of grammar and their application, but a thorough knowledge of English words, and a critical acquaintance with the shades of difference in the signification of our synonymous terms. To this should be added the ability, from frequent exercise, of expressing themselves well in written composition. They should also be well acquainted with the principles of arithmetic on Colburn's simple and excellent plan. This would enable them to teach their children, with very little trouble, all the principal doctrines of numbers. Natural history, in its most extensive sense, will form a very useful and instructive branch of female study. Geography and general

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