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history are also very necessary. Natural philosophy and chemistry should claim a share of attention: they would furnish many subjects of reflection, and cultivate the reasoning powers. But, above all, the doctrines of morals, as examined in works on natural theology and moral philosophy, and displayed in the sacred scriptures, should constitute the points of the most careful investigation. With these should be connected the evidences of the truth of the christian religion. With regard to geometry and practical mathematics, we think, young ladies ought at least to be well acquainted with Euclid's elements and arithmetic. They should study Euclid's elements, not as some might suppose, for the purpose of ostentation; but for the same reason that Locke would have young gentlemen to study them, namely ' for the purpose of making them rational beings.'— No person ever went through Euclid understanding!^-, who did not become a better reasoner by it. We would therefore give a young lady a knowledge of geometry, because it will be useful to her, though nobody should ever know her to be a mathematician. Let us now examine some of the uses to which women could apply such a stock of acquirements as the preceding. Omitting the mention of the numerous benefits derived to themselves from the possession of a well cultivated mind, we would notice more particularly the advantages that society would derive from them. A proper plan of domestic education might then be instituted and put into practice. Children could be taught by their mothers at the rate of one or two hours a day, twice as much as they learn at our common schools. The demoralising influence of associating with the promiscuous groups of our common schools, might thus be obviated. This is an evil which has been observed by most parents that are solicitous for the welfare of their children. Here the innocent and the good are mixed with those who are already acquainted with the vices of the world. The spelling and other books used at school can afford them little or no entertainment, because they are not understood. The conversation of their play-mates becomes, therefore, the centre of attraction, to which all their feelings tend. And this conversation is not of a cast that will improve their morals or their understanding. The word that dismisses school, is the most grateful sound that meets the scholar's ears; and the call to their books is disagreeable to all, and so disgusting to some, that they will even risk the consequences of playing truant, to avoid learning what they do not understand and what consequently cannot interest them. If their books were understood by them, reading would, in most instances, be preferred to bad company. But on the present mode of learning nothing but words without meanings, it is scarcely possible for a child to love to go to school. Indeed, we might very reasonably express our wonder if we saw it otherwise. Hence it also happens, that, to command attention, teachers must have recourse to many modes of punishment which might have been prevented, by avoiding the cause. Should female education once be put upon a liberal footing, the whole face of society would be greatly changed for the better in the course of the next fifty years. Women would then delight in 'teaching the young idea how to shoot;' and the expense of most of our common schools might be saved. Our ladies would then be capable at a small expenditure of time to qualify their sons for the lower classes of our academies and colleges, and to give to their daughters all the qualifications requisite for making them as useful in their turn as their mothers have been. [In connection with the subject of this article we would invite the attention of mothers to a very few books in the department of elementary instruction. We do not mention the following works as perfect, but as highly improved vehicles of maternal tuition which every mother ought to use and which every mother can use. The first book we would name is the Child's Arithmetic, by Mr. William B. Fowle: it embraces all that is valuable in the systems of Pestalozzi and Colburn, adapted to the infant mind. In geography, we would recommend Mrs. Willard's admirable little volume; and in reading, Worcester's Primer, a book which, we think, will teach a child by a very simple, and natural, and entertaining method, and with a very great economy of time and labor, to both mother and child.* These books will be found very useful, not only in their respective places, but with reference to the whole business of parental education: they will lead parents to pursue a similar course in all other branches, and will secure the full benefit of explanatory and inductive instruction.] * This excellent little volume is not yet entirely through the press; but our opinion of it is founded on a careful perusal of the manuscript, and of the greater part of the work in its printed form.

REVIEW.

POPULAR EDUCATION.

] —Letters to the Hon. William Prescott, LL.D. on the Free Schools of New England, with remarks upon the principles of instruction. By James G. Carter. Boston, 1824. 8vo. pp. 124. 2.—Essays upon Popular Education; containing a particular examination of the Schools of Massachusetts, and an outline of an Institution for the Education of Teachers. [First published in the Boston Patriot; in the winter of 1824—5.] By James G. Carter. Boston, 1826. 8vo. pp. 40. 3.—Plan of a Seminary for the Education of Instructers of Youth. By Thomas H. Gallaudet. Boston, 1825. 8vo. pp. 39. 4.—Observations on the Improvement of Seminaries of Learning in the United States; with suggestions for its accomplishment. By Walter R. Johnson. Philadelphia, 1825. 8vo. pp. 28.

5.—The United States Literary Gazette, Vol. Ill, Nos. 5 and 6. Boston, 1825. 8vo. pp. 80. 6.—Message of Gov. Lincoln to the Legislature of Massachusetts at their winter session. 1826. 7.—Message of Gov. Clinton to the Legislature of New York, at their winter session, 1826. 8.—Report of the Commissioners, appointed by a resolve ofUie Legislature of Massachusetts, passed on the 22d Feb. 1825. Boston, 1826. 8vo. pp. 55. 9.—An Act, further to provide for the instruction of youth in Massachusetts, passed March, 1826.

10.—Remarks on the School Law of the last session of the Legislature, and information concerning the Common Schools of Massachusetts, New York, South Carolina, 6}c. eye. Philadelphia, 1826. 8vo. pp. 38. 11.—Message of Gov. Lincoln, to the Legislature of Massachusetts at their spring session in 1826. 12.—An Address delivered before the Alumni of Columbia College, on the third day of May, 1826, in the Hall of the College. By WilLiam Bard, A. B. New York, 1826. 8vo. pp. 36. 13.—The United States Literary Gazette, Vol. IV, No. 4. Boston, 1826. 8vo. pp. 40. 14.—Abstract of Returns from the School Committees of several towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. [Printed by order of the General Court.] Boston, 1826. Folio. 15.—Practical Observations on Popular Education. By H. BroughAm Esq. M. P. F. R. S. [From the twentieth London Edition.] Boston, 1826. 8vo. pp. 36. We have collected with some diligence these pamphlets and documents upon popular education, and arranged them, we believe, according to the order of time in which they were first published in the different parts of our country. We thought that we should do well to copy their titles, at length, in order to show the great and growing importance, which the subject of them assumes at the present time; and also to indicate to our readers the sources from which we have derived many of our facts and reflections. If others have a desire to survey the ground which we have now surveyed, they will find in the above list of books and papers, a directory that it might have cost them some labor to form for themselves. With the pamphlet which we have placed at the head of our list, the public are already pretty well acquainted, as it has been some time published, and many of the conductors of our journals, ourselves among the number, have drawn quite copiously from its pages. It contains much that is suited to the purposes of our work, and as we shall probably have occasion to recur to it, again, in another department, we shall at present forbear further remarks upon its character and its tendency. The second and third in order, were, as we learn, originally published in numbers almost simultaneously ; the former in a newspaper of this city, with the signature of Franklin,' and the latter in one printed at Hartford, Connecticut, with the signature of'A Father.' We are glad to perceive that their several authors have, at length, been induced to collect their numbers and embody them in pamphlets for safer preservation and wider circulation. Though evidently written, as newspaper essays are usually written, without much care or attention, to precision or niceness of phraseology, they nevertheless contain many facts and reasonings, which cannot fail to be of practical utility to those engaged in digesting any system of public instruction in this country. The former of these productions contains a pretty full account of the different classes of schools in Massachusetts and of their reciprocal influence upon each other. The latter suggests many valuable ideas upon the subject of education generally. And both of them, as well as those marked 4, 5, and 8, in our catalogue, all proceeding from different quarters of our country, strongly state the necessity of some direct and efficient preparation of the candidates for the profession of teaching. The same subject has been repeatedly and strenuously urged upon the attention of the Legislatures of Massachusetts and New York, in parts of the messages of Gov. Lincoln and Gov. Clinton above cited. As we shall recur to this topic again, before we close these remarks, we pass on now to give a brief account of the remaining part of our list. The documents marked 9 and 14, comprehend the doings of the State of Massachusetts in regard to popular education for the last two years. The former we have already printed at length. [See No. 4.] One of the objects of this act was to collect information touching the number, character, and condition of the schools throughout the Commonwealth. The latter document forms a part, and we are sorry to perceive, a very imperfect part, of the system of returns from the school committees contemplated in the law above alluded to. When the law has been carried fully into effect, and the returns, of which this abstract is only a specimen, are made complete, they will enable legislators hereafter to possess themselves of a better knowledge of the subject of popular education in this state, and consequently to act with greater energy and precision. The pamphlets numbered 10 and 13, relate to the means of education in Pennsylvania. The former presses the subject upon the attention of the Legislature, and urges the necessity of a more equal and extended system of common schools than now prevails there, and quotes as examples of better systems those of Massachusetts, New York, and South Carolina; the latter contains a brief history of the legislative provisions for popular education in that ancient, rich and respectable Commonwealth, from its first foundation down to the present time.

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Tho object of the author of the address marked 12, in our list was to impress upon his hearers the vital importance to our government of a well educated yeomanry. And although we do not coincide with him in opinion on all points as to the best means of securing and perpetuating an enlightened body of cultivators of the soil, we think many of his remarks are exceedingly judicious and practical. Mr. Bard thinks that some education for those who have actually become paupers should be provided for by the state or the public; but that all others should be left to take care of themselves in their own way. He argues that it is obviously for the interest and happiness of all to provide a good education for their families; and that men,— hard laboring men, as well as others,—should be left to buy their own instruction and that of their families, as they buy the other comforts or luxuries of life. But it appears to us that Mr. Bard

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