Alcohol in Africa: Mixing Business, Pleasure, and Politics
Alcohol in Sub-Saharan Africa has historically been a conduit for religious and political expression controlled by male elders. Over the past century and especially during the last two crisis-ridden decades, alcohol's ceremonial role has been largely displaced. Rapid income differentiation and economic marginalization have spurred production and consumption of alcohol. In many localities, expanding supply has led to drinking patterns that impinge on general social welfare. These circumstances coincide with the continent-wide implementation of structural adjustment and economic liberalization policies. One might ask, have those policies driven people to drink?
Currently, alcohol is a taboo subject for donors and African governments alike, yet it is at the nexus of many of the continent's most pressing problems. Agricultural sector decline, large-scale labor redundancy, household instability, and AIDS have cause or effect linkages to changing alcohol usage. This edited collection explores the economic, political, and social meanings of alcohol usage. The material is contextualized within a review of existing anthropological, social history, and social welfare literature on alcohol, and a broad historical overview of the continental trends in alcohol production and consumption. Both the pleasure and the pain of alcohol usage emerge, providing insight into the ambiguity of alcohol in Africa today.
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The lesser deities and the ancestors, creations of the Supreme Being, served as
intermediaries between humans and the Supreme Being. This was a cosmos in
which the natural and the supernatural coexisted in an intimate relationship.
Annual rituals at the end of the season involve the ancestors. In the palace, the
chief engages in relations with his predecessors, while in the houses of ordinary
people the first-fruit ceremonies involve libations to the ancestors of the house.
He assumes that Christians and Muslims would decide not to drink because they
could not be sure if the ancestors were among their drinking partners. In Maane,
Rekdal's argument would have to be put on its head: the boundaries of drinking,
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