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THE CAMPAIGN OF CHANCELLORSVILLE. With Maps. 8vo,

$3.00. RIDERS OF MANY LANDS. Profusely illustrated by Remington, and

from photographs of Oriental subjects. 8vo, $3.00. A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF OUR CIVIL WAR. With Maps and Illus

trations. Students' Edition. Crown 8vo, $1.00, net. Postpaid. PATROCLUS AND PENELOPE: A CHAT IN THE Saddle. Popular

Edition. With woodcuts from instantaneous photographs. Crown

8vo, half roan, $1.25. GREAT CAPTAINS. With Maps, etc. Svo, $2.00.

Great Captains : ALEXANDER. A History of the Origin and Growth of the Art of War,

from the Earliest Times to the Battle of Ipsus, B. C. 301; with a detailed account of the Campaigns of the Great Macedonian. With 237 Charts, Maps, Plans of Battles and Tactical Manæuvres, Cuts of

Armor, Uniforms, Siege Devices, and Portraits. 2 vols. 8vo, $5.00. HANNIBAL. A History of the Art of War among the Carthaginians

and Romans, down to the Battle of Pydna, 168 B. C.; with a detailed account of the Second Punic War. With 227 Charts, Maps, Plans of Battles and Tactical Manœuvres, Cuts of Armor, Weapons, and

Uniforms. 2 vols. 8vo, $5.00. CÆSAR. A History of the Art of War among the Romans, down to

the End of the Roman Empire ; with a detailed account of the Cam. paigns of Caius Julius Cæsar. With 258 Charts, Maps, Plans of Batiles and Tactical Manæuvres, Cuts of Armor, Weapons, and

Engines. 2 vols. 8vo, $5.00. GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS. A History of the Art of War from its

revival after the Middle Ages to the end of the Spanish Succession War, with a detailed account of the Campaigns of the great Swede, and the most famous Campaigns of Turenne, Con Eugene, and Marlborough. With 237 Charts, Maps, Plans of Battles and Tactical Mancuvres, Cuts of Uniforms, Arms, and Weapons. 2 vols.

8vo, $5.00. Also in i vol. 8vo, $5.00. NAPOLEON. A History of the Art of War, with many Charts, Maps,

Plans of Battles and Tactical Manœuvres, Portraits, Cuts of Uniforms, Arms, and Weapons. VOL. I. Includes the period from the beginning of the French

Revolution to the end of the Eighteenth Century, with a detailed

account of the Wars of the French Revolution. VOL. II. Includes the period from the beginning of the Consulate

to the end of the Friedland Campaign, with a detailed account of the Napoleonic Wars. VOL. III. Includes the period from the beginning of the Peninsu

lar War to the end of the Russian Campaign. VOL. IV. Includes the period from the battle of Lützen through

Napoleon's last campaign. 4 vols. 8vo, each $4.00 net. Carriage extra.

IN PREPARATION:
Uniform in style with the above volumes.

FREDERICK THE GREAT.
The complete series (Alexander to Napoleon) will cover the History
of the Art of War from the earliest times down to 1815.
HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY

BOSTON AND NEW YORK.

Great Captains

NAPOLEON

A HISTORY OF THE ART OF WAR, FROM THE BE-
GINNING OF THE PENINSULAR WAR TO THE END
OF THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN, WITH A DETAILED
ACCOUNT OF THE NAPOLEONIC WARS

WITH 165 CHARTS, MAPS, PLANS OF BATTLES AND
TACTICAL MANEUVRES, PORTRAITS, CUTS

OF UNIFORMS, ARMS, AND WEAPONS

BY

THEODORE AYRAULT DODGE

THE

BREVET LIEUTENANT-COLONEL UNITED STATES ARMY, RETIRED LIST; AUTHOR OF
CAMPAIGN OF CHANCELLORSVILLE,” “A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF OUR CIVIL WAR,"

PATROCLUS AND PENELOPE. A CHAT IN THE SADDLE," "GREAT CAP-
TAINS, ." “ ALEXANDER,

CESAR, " ETC., ETC.

HANNIBAL,” “

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BOSTON AND NEW YORK
HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY
The Riverside Press, Cambridge

1907

Copyright, 1907,
BY THEODORE AYRAULT DODGE.

All rights reserved.

Published November, 1907.

PREFACE.

THESE volumes on Napoleon are not a history of his era. The two now issued are confined to the second half of the military life of the great captain, and are the concluding volumes of the History of the Art of War, begun by the author in 1890 with the life of Alexander Political events are barely touched on; personal matters only to throw light on Napoleon's character as a soldier. While narrating in much detail the campaigns from 1808 to 1815, Volumes III. and IV. furnish a study of the causes which led to Napoleon's downfall, as Volumes I. and II. contain the story of his amazing rise to power. Although a part of the larger History, yet this military life of Napoleon is of itself a complete work.

The subject is so vast that to write double the number of pages would have been far easier. To compress the matter into its present size has obliged the author to sacrifice diction to facts, and to reduce many chapters to what appears crude. All useless words, such, e. g., as titles, have been omitted. “Son Altesse Sénérissime le Prince Connétable' becomes merely Berthier; Ney is not even “ Marshal Ney," much less “ Duke of Elchingen” or “ Prince of the Moskwa ;' the “ Duke of Auerstädt and Prince of Eggmühl” remains plain Davout. Even in translating from the Correspondence, the well-known names of Lannes, or Soult, or Massena are retained instead of their more picturesque titles of nobility. Adjectives have been erased wholesale. As all this tends to

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simplicity, the author need not in this práctical day apologize for a style often lacking color.

There are for busy people many shorter histories of Napoleon's wars, and many histories treating of the era and devoting little space to military events. On the other hand, the amazing detail of the French and other Staff works cannot be followed by many readers, even those who make a study of military operations, numbered as these voluminous publications are by the hundreds of thousands of pages. The present work will be found to fill a want for those who, within reasonable compass, wish to know how this giant soldier wrought.

As Napoleon's career progresses, his strategic maneuvres become more interesting, and his failures more instructive. The detail of these has accordingly at times been given to a greater extent than demanded by the general reader, but still appropriate to a military history, and essential to a full understanding of his methods, as his armies and projects increased in vastness and his difficulties multiplied. But skipping has been made easy to those who do not desire to enter into minutiæ.

Over thirty years ago the author began the study of Napoleon in the ample library of the late John C. Ropes of Boston, a clear-headed critic, an able writer, and an authority on the subject. This study he has continued at intervals ever since, and for the last five years in Paris; and his travels and studies in working up the campaigns of the other great captains, as they fitted into the History of the Art of War, have aided him in understanding what this last of them did.

The author is peculiarly indebted to General Brugère, late Commander-in-Chief of the French Army, for many acts of personal and official courtesy and helpfulness; to the Chiefs of the Historical Section of the French Staff, Colonel Cou

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