brose, in his book of the good of death, teacheth us that death “ isb a certain haven to them who, being tossed in the great sea of this life, desire a road of safe quietness; that it maketh not a man's state worse, but such as it findeth in every one, such it reserveth unto the future judgment, and refresheth with rest:" that thereby “ao passage is made from corruption to incorruption, from mortality to immortality, from trouble to tranquillity.” Therefore he saith, that where “ fools do fear death as the chief of evils, wise men do desire it, as a rest after labours, and an end of their evils ;” and upon these grounds exhorteth us, that “when that day cometh, we should go without fear to Jesus our Redeemer, without fear to the council of the patriarchs, without fear to Abraham our father; that without fear we should address ourselves unto that assembly of saints, and congregation of the righteous; forasmuch as we shall go to our fathers, we shall go to those schoolmasters of our faith ; that, albeit our works fail us, yet faith may succour us, and our title of inheritance defend us."

Macarius, writing of the double state of those that depart out of this life, affirmeth, that when the soul goeth out of the body, if it be guilty of sin, the devil carrieth it away with him unto his place: but when the holy servants of God "remove out of their body, the choirs of angels receive their souls unto their own side, unto the pure world, and so bring them unto the Lord ;” and in another place, moving the question concerning such as depart out of this world sustaining two persons in their soul, to wit, of sin and of grace; whither they shall go that are thus held by two parts : he maketh answer, that thither they shall go, where they have their mind and affection settled. For“ the Lord,” saith he,“beholding thy mind, that thou fightest, and lovest him with thy whole soul, separateth death from thy soul in one hour, for this is not hard for him to do, and taketh thee into his own bosom, and unto light. For he plucketh thee away in the minute of an hour from the mouth of darkness, and presently translateth thee into his own kingdom. For God can easily do all these things in the minute of an hour; this provided only, that thou bearest love unto him:” than which, what can be more direct against the dream of popish purgatory ? “Thish present world is the time of repentance, the other of retribution: this of working, that of rewarding: this of patient suffering, that of receiving comfort :" saith St. Basil.

• Et quia portus quidam est eorum qui, magno vitæ istius jactati salo, fidæ quietis stationem requirunt: et quia deteriorem statum non efficit ; sed qualem in singulis invenerit, talem judicio futuro reservat, et quiete ipsa fovet, &c. Ambros. de bono mortis, cap. 4. Op. tom. 1. pag. 395.

c Transitur autem a corruptione ad incorruptionem, a mortalitate ad immortalitatem, a perturbatione ad tranquillitatem. Ibid.

Insipientes mortem quasi summum malorum reformidant: sapientes quasi requiem post labores et finem malorum expetunt. Ib. cap. 8. pag. 403.

e His igitur freti, intrepide pergamus ad redemptorem nostrum Jesum, intrepide ad patriarcharum concilium, intrepide ad patrem nostrum Abraham, cum dies advenerit, proficiscamur: intrepide pergamus ad illum sanctorum cætum, justorumque conventum. Ibimus enim ad patres nostros, ibimus ad illos nostræ fidei præceptores : ut, etiamsi opera desint, fides opituletur, defendat hæreditas. Ib. cap. 12. pag. 411.

1 “Οταν εξέλθωσιν από του σώματος, οι χοροί των αγγέλων παραλαμβανούσιν αυτών τας ψυχάς εις το ίδιον μέρος, εις τον καθαρόν αιώνα, και oŰTWS aútoùg a pooáyovoi tqo Kupiw. Macar. Ægypt. homil. 22.

Gregory Nazianzen, in his funeral orations, hath many sayings to the same purpose; being so far from thinking of any purgatory pains, prepared for men in the other world, that he plainly denieth, that after the night of this present life there is any purging to be expected; and therefore he telleth us, " thatk it is better to be cor

ε Βλέπων ο Κύριος τον νούν σου, ότι αγωνίζω, και αγαπάς αυτόν εξ όλης ψυχής, διαχωρίζει τον θανάτον εκ της ψυχής σου μια ώρα (ούκ εστί γάρ αυτώ δυσχερές) και προσλαμβανεται σε εις τους κόλπους αυτού, και εις το φώς. αρπάζει γάρ σε εν ροπή ώρας εκ του στόματος του σκότους, και ευθέως μετατίθησί σε εις την βασιλείαν αυτού το γαρ θεώ εν ροπή ώρας πάντα ευχερή έστι ποιήσαι, μόνον ίνα την αγάπην έχης προς αυτόν. 1d. hom. 26.

Β ούτος ο αιών της μετανοίας, εκείνος της ανταποδόσεως ούτος της εργασίας, εκείνος της μισθαποδοσίας ούτος της υπομονής, εκείνος της παρακλησεως. Basil. proem. in regulas fusius disputat. Εργασίας γάρ ο παρων καιρός· ο δε μέλλων ανταποδόσεως. Greg. Nazianz. Οrat. 9. ad Julianum τον εξισώτην.

* Μηδέ υπέρ την νύκτα ταύτην έστι τις κάθαρσις. Nazianzen, orat. 42. in pascha.

* ώς βέλτιον είναι νύν παιδευθήναι και καθαρθήναι, ή τη εκείθεν βασάνω παραπεμφθήναι, ηνίκα κολάσεως καιρός, ού καθάρσεως. Ιd. orat. 15. in plagam grandinis, indeque in locis communib. Maximi, serm. 45. et Antonii, part. 2. serm. 94.

rected and purged now, than to be sent unto the torment there, where the time of punishing is, and not of purging." St. Hierome comforteth Paula for the death of her daughter Blæsilla, in this manner: “ Let' the dead be lamented; but such a one, whom Gehenna doth receive, whom hell doth devour, for whose pain the everlasting fire doth burn. Let us, whose departure a troop of angels doth accompany, whom Christ cometh forth to meet, be more grieved if we do longer dwell in this tabernacle of death; because, as long as we remain here, we are pilgrims from God.”

By all that hath been said, the indifferent reader may easily discern, what may be thought of the cracking cardinal, who would face us down, that “all the ancients, both Greek and Latin, from the very time of the apostles, did constantly teach that there was a purgatory," whereas his own partners could tell him in his ear, that “in” the ancient writers there is almost no mention of purgatory; especially in the Greek writers, and therefore that by the Grecians it is not believed until this day.” He allegeth indeed a number of authorities to blear men's eyes withal: whith, being narrowly looked into, will be found either to be counterfeit stuff, or to make nothing at all to the purpose; as belonging either to the point of praying for the dead only, which in those ancient times had no relation to purgatory; as in the handling of the next article we shall see: or unto the fire of affliction in this life, or to the fire that shall burn the world at the last day, or to the fire prepared for the devil and his angels, or to some other fire than that which he intended to kindle thereby. This benefit only have we here gotten by his labours, that he hath saved us the pains of seeking far for the forge, from whence the first sparkles of that purging fire of his broke forth. For the ancientest memorial that he bringeth thereof, the places which he hath abused out of the canonical and apocryphal Scriptures only excepted, iso out of Plato in his Gorgias and Phædo; Cicero, in the end of his fiction of the dream of Scipio ; and Virgil, in the sixth book of his Æneids: and next after the apostles' times, outp of Tertullian, in the seventeenth chapter of his book De anima ; and Origen in divers places. Only he must give us leave to put him in mind, with what spirit Tertullian was led, when he wrote that book De anima, and with what authority he strengthened that conceit of men's paying in hell for their small faults before the resurrection, namely of the Paraclete ; by whom if he mean Montanus the arch-heretic, as there is small cause to doubt that he doth, we need not much envy the cardinal for raising up so worshipful a patron of his purgatory

Lugeatur mortuus; sed ille, quem gehenna suscipit, quem tartarus devorat, in cujus pænam æternus ignis æstuat. Nos, quorum exitum angelorum turba comitatur, quibus obviam Christus occurrit, gravemur magis, si diutius in tabernaculo isto mortis habitemus. Quia, quamdiu hic moramur, peregrinamur a Domino. Hieronym. epist. 25. Op. tom. 4. par. 2. pag. 56.

m Omnes veteres Græci et Latini ab ipso tempore apostolorum constanter docuerunt purgatorium esse. Bellarmin. de purgat. lib. 1. cap. 15.

" Alphons. de Castro, advers. hæres. lib. 8. tit. Indulgentia. Jo. Roffens. assert. Lutheran, confutat, artic. 18. Polydor. Virgil. de invent. rer. lib. 8. cap. 1.

But if Montanus come short in his testimony, Origen, I am sure, pays it home with full measure; not pressed down only and shaken together, but also running over. For he was one of those, as the cardinal" knoweth full well, “who approved of purgatory so much, that he acknowledged no other pains after this life, but purgatory penalties only;" and therefore in his judgment hell and purgatory being the selfsame thing, such as blindly follow the cardinal may do well to look, that they stumble not upon hell, while they seek for purgatory. The Grecians profess that they are afraid to tell their people of any temporary fire after this life ; lest it should breed in them a spice of Origen's disease, and put out of their memory the thought of eternal punishment; and by this means, occasioning them to be more careless of their conversation, make them indeed fit fuel for those everlasting flames. Which fear of theirs we may perceive not to have been altogether causeless, when the purgatory of Origen resembleth the purgatory of the pope so nearly, that the wisest of his cardinals is so ready to mistake the one for the other. And, to speak the truth, the one is but an unhappy sprig cut off from the rotten trunk of the other; which sundry men long since endeavoured to graft upon other stocks, but could not bring unto any great perfection, until the pope's followers tried their skill upon it, with that success which now we behold. Some of the ancient, that put their hand to this work, extended the benefit of this fiery purge unto all men in general: others thought fit to restrain it unto such as some way or other bore the name of Christians; others to such Christians only as had one time or other made profession of the Catholic faith; and others to such alone as did continue in that profession until their dying day.

o Bellarmin. de purgator. lib. 1. cap. 11. P Id. ibid. cap. 7, et 10.

9 Hoc etiam Paracletus frequentissime commendavit ; si quis sermones ejus ex agnitione promissorum charismatum admiserit. Tertull. de anima cap. ult.

Non defuerunt, qui adeo purgatorium probarint, ut nullas pænas nisi purgatorias post hanc vitam agnoverint. Ita Origenes sensit. Bellarmin. de purgator, lib. I. cap. 2.

Against all these, St. Augustine doth learnedly dispute ; proving that wicked men, of what profession soever, shall be punished with everlasting perdition. And, whereas the defenders of the last opinion did ground themselves upon that place in the third chapter of the first epistle to the Corinthians, which the pope also doth make the principal foundation of his purgatory, although it be a probatory, and not a purgatory fire that the apostle there

8 Ει δε νύν εκ δέου και πρόσκαιρον ονομάσωμεν πύρ, δέος μη τούθ' υποπτεύσαντες είναι οι πιστοί το αιώνιον, και πάν ήδη τοιούτο νομίσωσι πύρ, κάντεύθεν τα 'Ωριγένους νοσήσωσι, και την της αιωνίου κολάσεως μνήμην των ψυχών αποικίσωσιν, τέλος κολάσεως θεμενοι. όθεν ώς πολλά μεν έψεται άτοπα, πολλήν δε επιδείξονται περί την οικείαν πολιτείαν αμέλειαν, και πολλήν χορηγήσουσιν ύλην τη αιωνίω κολάσει, ουδείς άγvoei. Græci, in lib. de purgatorio igne, a Bon. Vulcanio edit.

Uniuscujusque opus quale sit, ignis probabit. I Cor. cap. 3. ver. 13.

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