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OF IM AGES.
With prayer to saints, our challenger joineth the use of holy images: which what it hath been and still is in the Church of Rome, seeing he hath not been pleased to declare unto us in particular, I hope he will give us leave to learn from others. “It is the doctrine then of the Roman Church, that the images of Christ and the saints should with pious religion be worshipped by Christians:" saith Zacharias Boverius the Spanish friar, in his late consultation directed to our most noble prince Charles, “theb hope of the Church of England,” and “ the future felicity of the world,” as even this Balaam himself doth style him. The representations of God, and of Christ, and of angels, and of saints, “ ared not only painted that they may be shewed as the cherubims were of old in the temple, but that they may be adored, as the frequent use of the Church doth testify :” saith cardinal Cajetan. So Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, in his provincial council held at Oxford in the year MCCCCVIII.
a Doctrina est Romanæ Ecclesiæ, Christi et sanctorum imagines pia religione a Christianis colendas esse. Zach. Boverius, in orthodoxa consultat. de ratione veræ fidei et religionis amplectanda. part. 2. regul. 1. pag. 189. edit. Matrit. ann. 1623.
• Serenissime Carole, spes Anglicanæ ecclesiæ. Id. part. 1. regul. 4. pag. 58. c Princeps futura orbis fælicitas. Id. part. 2. regul. 2. pag. 196.
a Non solum pinguntur, ut ostendantur, sicut Cherubim olim in templo, sed ut adorentur: ut frequens usus Ecclesiæ testatur. Cajetan. in 3. part. Thomæ, quæst. 25. artic. 3. VOL. III.
established this constitution following: “ From henceforth let it be taught commonly and preached by all, that the cross and the image of the crucifix and the rest of the images of the saints, in memory and honour of them whom they figure, as also their places and relics, ought to be worshipped with processions, bendings of the knee, bowings of the body, incensings, kissings, offerings, lighting of candles, and pilgrimages; together with all other manners and forms whatsoever, as hath been accustomed to be done in our or our predecessors' times.” And in the Roman Catechism set out by the appointment of the council of Trent, the parish priest is required to declare unto his parishioners, “not only that it is lawful to have images in the church, and to give honour and worship unto them, (forasmuch as the honour which is done unto them, is referred unto the things which they represent) but also that this hath still been done to the great good of the faithful;" and that “ the images of the saints are put in churches, as well that they may be worshipped, as that we being admonished by their example, might conform ourselves unto their life and manners.”
Now for the manner of this worship, we are told by one of their bishops, that "it" must not only be confessed, that the faithful in the Church do adore before the images (as some peradventure would cautelously speak) but also adore the image itself, without what scruple you will; yea they do reverence it with the same worship, wherewith they do the thing that is represented thereby. Wherefore,” saith he,“ if that ought to be adored with Latria, (or divine worship) this also is to be adored with Latria; if with Dulia or Hyperdulia, this likewise is to be adored with the same kind of worship.” And so we see that Thomas Aquinas doth directly conclude, that " the same reverence is to be given unto the image of Christ and to Christ himself: and by consequence, seeing Christ is adored with the adoration of Latria (or divine worship) that his image is to be adored with the adoration of Latria." Upon which place of Thomas, friar Pedro de Cabrera, a great master of divinity in Spain, doth lay down these conclusions. I. “ Itk is simply and absolutely to be said, that holy images are to be worshipped, in churches and out of churches, and the contrary is an heretical doctrine.” For explication whereof he declareth, that by this worshipping he meaneth, “that signs of service and submission are to be exhibited unto images, by embracing, lights, oblation of incense, uncovering of the head," &c. and that “ this conclusion is a doctrine of faith collected out of the holy Scripture; by which it appeareth, that things created, yea although they be senseless, so that they be consecrated unto God, are to be adored." II. “ Images' are truly and properly to be adored; and out of an intention to adore themselves, and not only the samplers that are represented in them." This conclusion (which he maketh to be the common resolution of the divines of that side) he opposeth against Durand and his followers, who held that images are adored only improperly, because they put men in mind of the persons represented by them, who are then adored before the images, as if they had been there really present. But this opinion, he saith, is censured by the latter divines to be dangerous, rash, and savouring of heresy: yea, and by Franciscus Victoria to be plainly heretical. For“ ifm images be adored only improperly, they are not to be adored simply and absolutely, which is a manifest heresy," saith Cabrera. And “ ifn images were only to be worshipped by way of rememoration and recordation, because they make us remember the samplers, which we do so worship, as if they had been then present, it would follow that all creatures should be adored with the same adoration, wherewith we worship God, seeing all of them do lead us unto the knowledge and remembrance of God, and God is present in all things.” III. “ The doctrine delivered by Thomas, that the image and the sampler represented by it is to be worshipped with the same act of adoration, is most true, most pious, and very consonant to the decrees of faith.” This he saithP is the doctrine not only of Thomas, and of all his disciples, but also of all the old schoolmen almost. And particularly he quoteth for it, Cajetan, Capreolus, Paludanus, Ferrariensis, Antoninus, Soto, Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Bonaventura, Richardus de Mediavilla, Dionysius Carthusianus, Major, Marsilius, Thomas Waldensis, Turrecremata, Angestus, Clichtoveus, Turrian and Vasquez. In a word, " Ito is the constant judgment of divines," saith Azorius the Jesuit, “ that the image is to be honoured and worshipped with the same honour and worship, wherewith that is worshipped whereof it is an image.”
e Ab omnibus deinceps doceatur communiter atque prædicetur, crucem et imaginem crucifixi cæterasque imagines sanctorum, in ipsorum memoriam et honorem quos figurant, ac ipsorum loca et reliquias processionibus, genuflexionibus, inclinationibus, thurificationibus, deosculationibus, oblationibus, luminarium accensionibus, et peregrinationibus, nec non aliis quibuscunque modis et formis quibus nostris et prædecessorum nostrorum temporibus fieri consuevit, venerari debere. Guilhelm. Lyndewode provincial. lib. 5. de hæretic. cap. Nullus quoque.
Non solum autem licere in ecclesia imagines habere, et illis honorem et cultum adhibere, ostendet parochus (cum honos qui illis exhibetur, referatur ad prototypa) verum etiam maximo fidelium bono ad hanc usque diem factum declarabit. Catechism. Roman. part. 3. cap. 2. sect. 14.
& Sanctorum quoque imagines in templis positas demonstrabit; ut et colantur, et exemplo moniti, ad eorum vitam ac mores nos ipsos conformemus. Ibid.
1 Ergo non solum fatendum est, fideles in Ecclesia adorare coram imagine, ut nonnulli ad cautelam forte loquuntur, sed et adorare imaginem, sine quo volueris scrupulo; quin et eo illam venerantur cultu, quo et prototypon ejus : propter quod, si illud habet adorari latria, et illa latria ; si dulia vel hyperdulia, et illa pariter, ejusmodi cultu adoranda est. Jacob. Naclantus, in epist. ad Rom. cap. 1. fol. 42. edit. Venet. ann. 1557.
i Sic sequitur, quod eadem reverentia exhibeatur imagini Christi et ipsi Christo. Cum ergo Christus adoretur adoratione latriæ : consequens est, quod ejus imago sit adoratione latriæ adoranda. Thom. Summ. part. 3. quæst. 25. artic. 3.
* Simpliciter et absolute dicendum est, sacras imagines esse venerandas in templis, et extra templa : et contrarium est dogma hæreticum. Hoc est, imaginibus exhibenda esse signa servitutis et submissionis, amplexu, luminaribus, oblatione suffituum, capitis nudatione, &c. Hæc conclusio est dogma fidei collectum ex sancta scriptura, ex qua constat, res creatas etiam inanimes dummodo Deo sint sacratæ, esse adorandas. Pet. de Cabrera, in 3. part. Thom. quæst. 25. artic. 8. disput. 2. num. 15.
| Imagines sunt vere et proprie adorandæ, et ex intentione ipsas adorandi, et non tantum exemplaria in ipsis repræsentata. Hæc conclusio est contra Durandum et sectatores illius ; quorum sententia a recentioribus censetur periculosa, temeraria, et sapiens hæresim : et M. Medina hic refert, magistrum Victoriam reputasse illam hæreticam. Sed nostra conclusio est communis theologorum. Pet. de Caprera in 3. part. Thom. quæst. 25. art. 8. disp. 2. num. 32.
m Si imagines improprie tantum adorantur ; simpliciter et absolute non adorantur, neque sunt adorandæ : quod est hæresis manifesta. Ibid. num. 34.
n Si imagines solum adorantur rememorative et recordative, quia recordari nos faciunt exemplarium, quæ ita adoramus, acsi essent præsentia : sequeretur eadem adoratione, qua colimus Deum, esse adorandas omnes creaturas ; cum omnes in Dei cognitionem et recordationem nos ducant, et Deus sit in omnibus rebus. Sed consequens est absurdum. Ergo. Ibid. num. 35.
• Sententia Divi Thomæ, quatenus docet eodem actu adorationis coli imaginem, et exemplar per illam repræsentatum, est verissima, piissima, et fidei decretis admodum consona. Ibid. disput. 3. num. 56.
Against this use, or rather horrible abuse of images, to what purpose should we heap up any testimonies of holy Scripture, if the words of the second commandment, uttered by God's own mouth with thundering and lightning upon Mount Sinai, may not be heard ? “ Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image, nor the likeness of
any thing that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the water under the earth: Thou shalt not bow down to them, nor worship them.” Which thunderclap from heaven the guides of the Romish Church discerning to threaten sore that fearful idolatry which daily they commit, thought fit in wisdom, first to conceal the knowledge of this from the people, by excluding those words out of the decalogue that went abroad for common use, under pretence, forsooth, of including it in the first commandment; and then afterwards to put this conceit into men's heads, that this first commandment was so far from condemning the veneration of images, that it commanded the same, and condemned the contrary neglect thereof. And therefore Laurence Vaux in his catechism, upon this question: “ Who breaketh the first commandment of God by
p Pet. de Caprer. in 3. part. Thom. quæst. 25. art. 8. disp. 3. num. 30.
9 Constans est theologorum sententia ; imaginem eodem honore et cultu honorari et coli, quo colitur id cujus est imago. Jo. Azor. institut. moral. tom. 1. lib. 9. cap. 6.