« ForrigeFortsett »
drink his blood ; this letter killeth.” And those sayings, which every where occur in St. Augustine's tractates upon John: “ Howk shall I send up my hand unto heaven, to take hold on Christ sitting there? Send thy faith, and thou hast hold of him. Why' preparest thou thy teeth and thy belly? Believe, and thou hast eaten. For this is to eat the living bread, to believe in him. He, that believeth in him, eateth. He is invisibly fed; because he is invisibly regenerated. He is inwardly a babe ; inwardly renewed: where he is renewed, there is he nourished.”
The fourth proposition doth necessarily follow upon the third. For, if the eating and drinking here spoken of be not an external eating and drinking, but an inward participation of Christ, by the communion of his quickening Spirit; it is evident, that this blessing is to be found in the soul, not only in the use of the sacrament of the Lord's supper, but at other times also. “ It" is no ways to be doubted by any one," saith Fulgentius, “ that every one of the faithful is made partaker of the body and blood of our Lord, when he is made a member of Christ in baptism; and that he is not estranged from the communion of that bread and cup, although, before he eat that bread and drink that cup, he depart out of this world ; being settled in the unity of the body of Christ. For he is not deprived of the participation and the benefit of that sacrament, when he hath found that which this sacrament doth signify:" And hereupon we see, that divers of the fathers do apply the sixth of John to the hearing of the word also ; as, Clemenso Alexandrinus, Origen', Eusebius Cæsareensis, and others. “ We are said to drink the blood of Christ,” saith Origen, “not only by way of the sacraments; but also when we receive his word, wherein consisteth life : even as he himself saith, The words, which I have spoken, are spirit and life. Upon which words of Christ, Eusebius paraphraseth after this man
k Quomodo in cælum manum mittam, ut ibi sedentem teneam? Fidem mitte, et tenuisti. Augustin. in evang. Johan. tract. 50. op. tom. 3. pag. 630.
| Ut quid paras dentes et ventrem? Crede, et manducasti. Id. ibid. tractat. 25. pag. 489.
m Credere enim in eum, hoc est manducare panem vivum. Qui credit in eum, manducat.
Invisibiliter saginatur, quia invisibiliter renascitur. Infans intus est, novus intus est : ubi novellatur, ibi satiatur. Id. ibid. tract. 26.
Nulli est aliquatenus ambigendum, tunc unumquemque fidelium corporis sanguinisque Dominici participem fieri, quando in baptismate membrum Christi efficitur : nec alienari ab illius panis calicisque consortio, etiamsi, antequam panem illum comedat et calicem bibat, de hoc seculo in unitate corporis Christi constitutus abscedat. Sacramenti quippe illius participatione ac beneficio non privatur, quando ipse hoc, quod illud sacramentum significat, invenit. Fulgentius in fine libelli de baptismo Æthiopis, Augustini nomine citatus apud Bedam, in 1 Cor. cap. 10.
“Do not think that I speak of that flesh wherewith I am compassed, as if you must eat of that; neither imagine that I command you to drink my sensible and bodily blood : but understand well that the words, which I have spoken unto you, are spirit and life. So that those very words and speeches of his are his flesh and blood ; whereof who is partaker, being always therewith nourished as it were with heavenly bread, shall likewise be made partaker of heavenly life. Therefore let not that offend you, saith he, which I have spoken, of the eating of my flesh and of the drinking of my blood; neither let the superficial hearing of those things, which were said by me of flesh and blood, trouble you. For these things sensibly heard profit nothing; but the spirit is it, which quickeneth them that are able to hear spiritually.” Thus far Eusebius : whose words I have laid down the more largely, because they are not vulgar.
• Clem. Alexan. pædagog. lib. 1. cap. 6. p Orig. in Levit. cap. 10. hom. 7.
9 Bibere autem dicimur sanguinem Christi, non solum sacramentorum ritu, sed et cum sermones ejus recipimus, in quibus vita consistit ; sicut et ipse dicit : Verba, quæ locutus sum, spiritus et vita est. Origen in Num. hom. 16. op. tom. 2. pag. 334.
' Μή γάρ την σάρκα ην περίκειμαι νομίσητέ με λέγειν ώς δέον αυτήν εσθίειν, μηδέ το αισθητόν και σωματικών αίμα πίνειν υπολαμβάνατε με προστάττειν· αλλ' ευ ίστε ότι τα ρήματα α λελάληκα υμίν πνευμά ιστι και ζωή. ώστε αυτά είναι τα βήματα και τους λόγους αυτού την σάρκα και το αίμα' ών ο μετέχων αεί ώσανεί άρτω ουρανίω τρεφόμενος, της ουρανίου μεθέξει ζωής. Μηδέ ούν, φησί, σκανδαλιζέτω υμάς τούτο και περί βρώσεως της έμής σαρκός και περί πόματος του εμού αίματος είρηκα, μηδέ ταραττέτω υμάς ή πρόχειρος ακοή των περί της σαρκός και αίματος ειρημένων μοι. Ταύτα γαρ ουδέν ωφελεί αισθητως άκουόμενα, το δε πνεύμά εστι το ζωοποιούν τους πνευματικώς ακούειν δυναμένους. Εuseb. lib. 3. ecclesiast. theologiæ, contr. Marcell. Ancyran. M$. in publica Oxoniensis academice bibliotheca: et in privatis virorum doctissimorum, D. Richardi Montacutii et M. Patricii Junii. (postea edit. una cum Demon. Evang. Paris. 1628.)
There remaineth the fifth and last point, which is oftentimes repeated by our Saviour in this sermon; as in the fiftieth verse: “This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die.” And in the fifty-first: “ If any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever.” And in the fifty-fourth: “ Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life.” And in the fifty-sixth : “ He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me and I in him.” And in the fifty-eighth: “This is that bread which came down from heaven: not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever." Whereupon Origen rightly observeth the difference that is betwixt the eating of the typical or symbolical (for so he calleth the sacrament) and the true body of Christ. Of the former, thus he writeth: “ Thats which is sanctified by the word of God, and by prayer, doth not of its own nature sanctify him that useth it. For if that were so, it would sanctify him also, which doth eat unworthy of the Lord: neither should any one for this eating be weak, or sick or dead. For such a thing doth Paul shew, when he saith : For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep. Of the latter, thus: “Many things may be spoken of the Word itself, which was made flesh, and true meat; which whosoever eateth shall certainly live for ever: which no evil person can eat. For if it could be, that he who continueth evil might eat the
s Quod sanctificatur per verbum Dei, et per obsecrationem, non suapte natura sanctificat utentem. Nam id si esset, sanctificaret etiam illum, qui comedit indigne Domino : neque quisquam ob hunc esum infirmus aut ægrotus fuisset, aut obdormisset. Nam tale quiddam Paulus demonstrat, quum ait : “ Propter hoc inter vos infirmi, et male habentes, et dormiunt multi." Origen. in Matt. op. tom. 3. pag. 499.
' Multa porro et de ipso Verbo dici possent, quod factum est caro, verusque cibus, quem qui comederit omnino vivet in æternum ; quem nullus malus potest edere. Etenim si fieri possit ut, qui malus adhuc perseveret, edat Verbum factum carnem, quum sit Verbum et panis vivus, nequaquam scriptum fuisset : Quisquis ederit panem hunc, vivet in æternum. Id. ibid.
Word made flesh (seeing He is the Word and the bread of life), it should not have been written, Whosoever eateth this bread shall live for erer." The like difference doth St. Augustine also, upon the same ground, make betwixt the eating of Christ's body sacramentally and really. For, having affirmed, that wicked men“ may not be said to eat the body of Christ, because they are not to be counted among the members of Christ," he afterward addeth; “Christ' himself saying, He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, remaineth in me and I in him, sheweth what it is, not sacramentally but indeed, to eat the flesh of Christ, and drink his blood : for this is, to remain in Christ, that Christ likewise may remain in him. For he said this, as if he should have said : He that remaineth not in me, and in whom I do not remain, let not him say, or think, that he eateth my flesh or drinketh my blood.” And in another place, expounding those words of Christ here alleged, he thereupon inferreth thus: “ This is therefore to eat that meat, and drink that drink : to remain in Christ, and to have Christ remaining in him. And by this he that remaineth not in Christ, and in whom Christ abideth not, without doubt doth neither spiritually eat his flesh, nor drink his blood: although he do carnally and visibly press with his teeth the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ; and so rather eateth and drinketh the sacrament of so great a thing for judgment to himself, because that, being unclean, he did presume to come unto the sacraments of Christ.”.
u Nec isti dicendi sunt manducare corpus Christi ; quoniam nec in membris computandi sunt Christi. Augustin. de civit. Dei, lib. 21. cap. 25. op. tom. 7.
* Denique ipse dicens, Qui manducat carnem meam, et bibit sanguinem meum, in me manet, et ego in eo, ostendit quid sit, non sacramento tenus sed revera, manducare corpus Christi, et ejus sanguinem bibere : hoc est enim in Christo manere, ut in illo maneat et Christus. Sic enim hoc dixit, tanquam diceret : Qui non in me manet, et in quo ego non maneo, non se dicat aut existimet manducare corpus meum, aut bibere sanguinem meum. Id. ibid.
y Hoc est ergo manducare illam escam, et illum bibere potum; in Christo manere, et illum manentem in se habere. Ac per hoc, qui non manet in Christo, et in quo non manet Christus, proculdubio nec manducat spiritualiter carnem ejus, nec bibit ejus sanguinem, licet carnaliter et visibiliter premat dentibus sacramentum corporis et sanguinis Christi : sed magis tantæ rei sacramenmanducat et bibit, quia immundus præsumpsit ad Christi accedere sacramenta. tum ad judicium sibi Augustin. in evangel. Johan. tract. 26. op. tom. 3.
Hence it is that we find so often in him, and in other of the fathers, that the body and blood of Christ is communicated only unto those that shall live, and not unto those that shall die for ever.
“ He is the bread of life. He therefore, that eateth life, cannot die. For how should he die whose meat is life? How should he fail, who hath a vital substance ?" saith St. Ambrose. And it is a good note of Macarius, that, as men use to give one kind of meat to their servants, and another to their children, so Christ, who “ createda all things, nourisheth indeed evil and ungrateful persons : but the sons which he begat of his own seed, and whom he made partakers of his grace, in whom the Lord is formed, he nourisheth with a peculiar refection and food, and meat and drink, beyond other men; giving himself unto them that have their conversation with his Father : as the Lord himself saith: he that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, remaineth in me, and I in him, and shall not see death.” Among the sentences collected by Prosper out of St. Augustine, this also is one. “He receiveth the meat of life, and drinketh the cup of eternity, who remaineth in Christ, and whose
? Hic est panis vitæ. Qui ergo vitam manducat, mori non potest. Quomodo enim morietur, cui cibus vita est ? Quomodo deficiet, qui habuerit vitalem substantiam? Ambros. in Psal. 118. octonar. 18. op. tom. 1. pag. 1203.
* Παντά αυτός έκτισε, και τρέφει τους πονηρούς και άχαρίστους, τα δε τέκνα ά εγέννησεν εκ του σπέρματος αυτού και οις μετέδωκεν εκ της χάριτος αυτού, εν οίς εμορφώθη ο κύριος, ιδίαν ανάπαυσιν, και τροφήν, και βρώσιν, και πόσιν, παρά τους λοιπούς ανθρώπους εκτρέφει, και δίδωσιν εαυτόν αυτοίς αναστρεφομένοις μετά του πατρός αυτού ώς φησίν ο Κύριος, ο τρώγων μου την σάρκα, και πίνων μου το αίμα, εν εμοί μένει, κάγώ εν αυτό, και θάνατον ου μη θεωρήσει. Macar. Egypt. homil. 14.
• Escam vitæ accipit, et æternitatis poculum bibit, qui in Christo manet, et cujus Christus habitator est. Nam qui discordat a Christo nec carnem ejus manducat, nec sanguinem bibit: etiamsi tantæ rei sacramentum ad judicium suze præsumptionis quotidie indifferenter accipiat. Prosp. sentent. 339.