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laid down by St. Augustine, in his epistle to Bonifacius: “ Ift sacraments did not some manner of way resemble the things whereof they are sacraments, they should not be sacraments at all. And for this resemblance they do oftentimes also bear the names of the things themselves. As therefore the sacrament of the body of Christ is after a certain manner the body of Christ, and the sacrament of Christ's blood is the blood of Christ; so likewise the sacrament of faith is faith.” By the sacrament of faith he understandeth baptism, of which he afterwards allegeth that saying of the apostle“, “ we are buried with Christ by baptism into death :” andt hen addeth: “he" saith not, We signify his burial; but he plainly saith, We are buried. Therefore the sacrament of so great a thing he would not otherwise call, but by the name of the thing itself.” And in his questions upon Leviticus : “ The thing that signifieth," saith he, “ useth to be called by the name of that thing which it signifieth, as it is written: The seven ears of corn are seven years; for he said not, They signify seven years: and the seven kine are seven years: and many such like. Hence was that saying, The rock was Christ. For he said not, The rock did signify Christ; but as if it had been that very thing, which doubtless by substance it was not, but by signification. So also the blood, because, for a certain vital corpulency which it hath, it signifieth the soul; after the manner of sacraments, it is called the soul.” Our argument therefore, out of the words of the institution, standeth thus :
Si enim sacramenta quandam similitudinem earum rerum, quarum sacramenta sunt, non haberent, omnino sacramenta non essent. Ex hac autem similitudine plerumque etiam ipsarum rerum nomina accipiunt. Sicut ergo secundum quendam modum sacramentum corporis Christi corpus Christi est, sacramentum sanguinis Christi sanguis Christi est; ita sacramentum fidei fides est. Aug. ep. 98. op. tom. 2. pag. 267.
u Rom. chap. 6. ver. 4.
w Non ait, Sepulturam significamus : sed prorsus ait, Consepulti sumus. Sacramentum ergo tantæ rei non nisi ejusdem rei vocabulo nuncupavit. Id. pag. 268.
Solet autem res quæ significat, ejus rei nomine, quam significat, nuncupari, sicut scriptum est : Septem spicæ septem anni sunt; non enim dixit ; Septem annos significant ; et septem boves septem anni sunt: et multa hujusmodi. Hinc est quod dictum est : Petra erat Christus. Non enim dixit, Petra significat Christum; sed tanquam hoc esset, quod utique per substantiam non hoc erat, sed per significationem. Sic et sanguis, quoniam propter vitalem quandam corpulentiam animam significat, in sacramentis anima dictus est. Aug. in Lev. quæst. 57. op. tom. 3. par. 1. pag. 516.
If it be true, that Christ called bread his body, and
wine his blood : then must it be true also, that the things, which he honoured with those names, cannot be really his body and blood, but figuratively and
But the former is true; therefore also the latter. The first proposition hath been proved by the undoubted principles of right reason, and the clear confession of the adverse part : the second by the circumstances of the text of the evangelists, by the exposition of St. Paul, and by the received grounds of the Romanists themselves. The conclusion therefore resteth firm: and so we have made it clear, that the words of the institution do not only not uphold, but directly also overthrow, the whole frame of that which the Church of Rome teacheth, touching the corporal presence of Christ under the forms of bread and wine.
If I should now lay down here all the sentences of the fathers, which teach that that which Christ called his body is bread in substance, and the body of the Lord in signification and sacramental relation; I should never make an end. Justin Martyr, in his apology to Antoninus the emperor, telleth us, that the bread and the wine, even that “ sanctifiedy food wherewith our blood and flesh by conversion are nourished, is that which we are taught to be the flesh and blood of Jesus incarnate." Irenæus in his fourth book against heresies saith, that our Lord, "taking? bread of that condition which is usual among us, confessed it to be his body: and the cup likewise containing
Υ Ευχαριστηθείσαν τροφήν, εξ ης αίμα και σάρκες κατά μεταβολήν τρέφονται ημών, εκείνου του σαρκοποιηθέντος Ιησού και σάρκα και αίμα έδι8áxOnuev kivai. Just. apolog. 1. pag. 83.
z Quomodo autem juste Dominus, si alterius patris existit, hujus conditionis, quæ est secundum nos, accipiens panem, suum corpus esse confitebatur; et temperamentum calicis suum sanguinem confirmavit Iren. pag. 270.
a Calicem, qui est ex ea creatura quæ est secundum nos, suum sanguinem confessus est. Id. pag. 249.
that creature which is usual among us, his blood.” And in his fifth book he addeth : "that cup, which is a creature, he confirmed to be his blood which was shed, whereby he increaseth our blood; and that bread which is of the creature, to be his body, whereby he increaseth our bodies. Therefore, when the mixed cup and the broken bread doth receive the word of God, it is made the eucharist of the blood and body of Christ, whereby the substance of our flesh is increased and doth consist." Our Lord, saith Clemens Alexandrinus, “ did bless wine, when he said, Take, drink, this is my blood, the blood of the vine.” Tertullian : “ Christd taking bread, and distributing it to his disciples, made it his body, saying, This is my body, that is, the figure of my body." Origen: “ That meat which is sanctified by the word of God, and by prayer, as touching the material part thereof, goeth into the belly, and is voided into the draught: but as touching the prayer which is added, according to the portion of faith it is made profitable; enlightening the mind, and making it to behold that which is profitable. Neither is it the matter of bread, but the word spoken over it, which profiteth him that doth not unworthily eat thereof. And these things I speak of the typical and symbolical body,” saith Origen. In the dialogues against the Marcionites, collected for the most part out of the writings of Maximus,
b Eum calicem qui est creatura, suum sanguinem qui effusus est, ex quo auget nostrum sanguinem ; et eum panem qui est a creatura, suum corpus confirmavit, ex quo nostra auget corpora. Quando ergo et mixtus calix et fractus panis percipit verbum Dei, fit eucharistia sanguinis et corporis Christi, ex quibus augetur et consistit carnis nostræ substantia. Id. pag. 294.
• Ευλόγησεν γε τον οίνον, είπών, Λάβετε, πίετε: τούτό μου έστι το aipa, alpa rñs au nélov. Clem. Alex. pædag. lib. 2. cap. 2. pag. 186.
& Acceptum panem, et distributum discipulis, corpus suum illum fecit, Hoc est corpus meum dicendo ; id est, figura corporis mei. Tertull. advers. Marcion. lib. 4. cap. 40.
• Ille cibus, qui sanctificatur per verbum Dei perque obsecrationem, juxta id quod habet materiale, in ventrem abit, et in secessum ejicitur: cæterum juxta precationem quæ illi accessit proportione fidei fit utilis, efficiens ut perspicax fiat animus, spectans ad id quod utile est. Nec materia panis, sed super illum dictus sermo est, qui prodest non indigne Domino comedenti illum. Et hæc quidem de typico symbolicoque corpore. Origen. in Matt, tom. xi. op. tom. 3. pag.
who lived in the time of the emperors Commodus and Severus, Origen, who is made the chief speaker therein, is brought in thus disputing against the heretics: “Iff Christ, as these men say, were without body and blood, of what kind of flesh, or of what body, or of what kind of blood did he give the bread and the cup to be images of, when he commanded his disciples by them to make a commemoration of him ?” St. Cyprian also noteth, thats it was wine, even the fruit of the vine, which the Lord said was his blood : and that “ flour" alone or water alone, cannot be the body of our Lord, unless both be united and coupled together, and kneaded into the lump of one bread.” And again: that “ the Lord calleth bread his body, which is made up by the uniting of many corns : and wine his blood, which is pressed out of many clusters of grapes, and gathered into one liquor.” Which I find also word for word in a manner transcribed in the commentaries upon the Gospels, attributed unto Theophilus bishop of Antioch*; whereby it appeareth, that in those elder times the words of the institution were no otherwise conceived, than as if Christ had plainly said, This bread is my body, and This wine is my blood : which is the main thing that we strive for with our adversaries; and for which the words themselves are plain enough : the substance whereof we find thus laid down in the harmony of the Gospels gathered, as some say, by Tatianus, as others, by Ammonius, within the second or the third age of Christ. “ Having' taken the bread, then afterward the cup of wine, and testified it to be his body and blood, he commanded them to eat and drink thereof; forasmuch as it was the memorial of his future passion and death."
* Ει δ' ώς ούτοι φασίν, άσαρκος και αναιμος ήν, ποίας σαρκός, ή τινός σώματος, η ποίου αίματος, εικόνας διδούς αρτόν τε και ποτήριον, ένετέλλετο τοίς μαθηταίς διά τούτων την ανάμνησιν αυτού ποιείσθαι; Orig. Dial. De rect. fid. sect. 4. op. tom. 1. pag. 853.
8 Qua in parte invenimus calicem mixtum fuisse quem Dominus obtulit, et vinum fuisse quod sanguinem suum dixit. Cypr. epist. 63. pag. 106.
b Nec corpus Domini potest esse farina sola, aut aqua sola; nisi utrumque adunatum fuerit et copulatum, et panis unius compage solidatum. Id. ibid.
Nam quando Dominus corpus suum panem vocat, de multorum granorum adunatione congestum, populum nostrum, quem portabat, indicat adunatum : et quando sanguinem suum vinum appellat, de botris atque acinis plurimis expressum atque in unum coactum, gregem item nostrum significat, commixtione adunatæ multitudinis copulatum. Id. epist. 76. pag. 153.
* Theoph. Antioch. in evang. lib. 1. pag. 152. tom. 2. biblioth. patr. edit. Colon.
To the fathers of the first three hundred years we will now adjoin the testimonies of those that flourished in the ages following. The first whereof shall be Eusebius : who saith that our Saviour “deliveredm to his disciples the symbols of his divine dispensation, commanding them to make the image of his own body; and appointing them to use bread for the symbol of his body:" and that we still “celebrate', upon the Lord's table, the memory of his sacrifice, by the symbols of his body and blood, according to the ordinances of the New Testament." Acacius, who succeeded him in his bishoprick, saith that "thep bread and wine sanctifieth them that feed upon that matter :" acknowledging thereby, that the material part of those outward elements do still remain. “In the Church," saith Macarius," is offered bread and wine, the type of his flesh and blood : and they, which are partakers of the visible bread, do spiritually eat the flesh of the Lord.” Christ, saith S. Hierome", "did not offer water, but wine, for the type of his blood.” St. Augustine bringeth in our Saviour
Mox accepto pane, deinde vini calice, corpus esse suum ac sanguinem testatus, manducare illos jussit et bibere ; quod ea sit futuræ calamitatis suæ mortisque memoria. Ammon, harmon, evang. tom. 3. biblioth. patr. pag. 28.
m Τα σύμβολα της ενθέου οικονομίας τους αυτού παρεδίδου μαθηταίς, την εικόνα του ιδίου σώματος ποιείσθαι παρακελευόμενος. Εuseb. lib. 8. demonst. evang. in fine, cap. 1.
η άρτω δε χρήσθαι συμβόλω του ιδίου σώματος παρεδίδου. Ιd. ibid.
ο Τούτου δήτα του θύματος την μνήμην επί τραπέζης εκτελεϊν, διά συμβόλων τού τε σώματος αυτού και του σωτηρίου αίματος, κατά θεσμούς Tûs kaivñs ĉiaOnans apeilnpótes. Id. lib. 1. demonst. cap. ult.
P Panis vinumque ex hac materia vescentes sanctificat. Acac. in Gen. 2. Græc. caten. in Pentateuch. Zephyro interp.
'Εν τη εκκλησία προσφέρεται άρτος και οίνος, άντίτυπον της σάρκος αυτού και του αίματος, και οι μεταλαμβάνοντες εκ του φαινομένου άρτου, πνευματικώς την σάρκα του Κυρίου εσθίoυσι. . Macar. Ægypt. homil. 27.
* In typo sanguinis sui non obtulit aquam, sed vinun. Hieronym. lib. 2. advers. Jovinian.