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B3Ci'K jurisdiction °f which was uncertain in its extent, and the form of its proceedings undefined; that, in his opinion, there remained but one method for composing their unhappy differences, which, though it had been often tried without success, might yet prove effectual, if it were attempted with a better and more pacific spirit than had appeared on former occasions, and that was, to choose a few men of learning, abilities, and moderation, who, by discussing the disputed articles in an amicable conference, might explain them in such a manner as to bring the contending parties either to unite in sentiment, or to differ with charity.
%*picion» This speech being printed in common form, and disai"the Pro- Perse(' over tne empire, revived the fears and jealousies of tenants, the Protestants. Ferdinand, they observed, with much surprise, had not once mentioned, in his address to the diet, the treaty of Passau, the stipulations of which they Considered as the great security of their religious liberty. The suspicions to which this gave rise were confirmed by the accounts which they daily received of the extreme severity with which Ferdinand treated their Protestant brethren in his hereditary dominions; and, as it was natural to consider his actions as the surest indication of his intentions, this diminished their confidence in those pompous professions of moderation and of zeal for the re-establishment of concord, to which his practice seemed to be so repugnant. These in- The arrival of the cardinal Morone, whom the pope the arriv/l na(l appointed to attend the diet as his nuncio, completed ot & nuncio their conviction, and left them no room to doubt that
trom the , . . ,r
l>ope to the some dangerous machination was forming against the diet. peace or safety of the Protestant church. Julius, elated with the unexpected return of the English nation from apostacy, began to flatter himself, that the spirit of mutiny and revolt having now spent its foree, the happy period was come when the church might resume its ancient authority, and be obeyed by the people with the same tame submission as formerly. Full of these hopes. he had sent Morone to Augsburg, with instructions to Book employ his eloquence to excite the Germans to imitate .._XI ^ the laudable example of the English, and his political '-'55' address in order to prevent any decree of the diet to the detriment of the Catholic faith. As Morone inherited from his father, the chancellor of Milan, uncommon talents for negociation and intrigue, he could hardly have failed of embarrasing the measures of the Protestants in the diet, or of defeating whatever they aimed at obtaining in it for their farther security.
But an unforeseen event delivered them from all the The <fcatk danger which they had reason to apprehend from Mo-^j'"'"TM rone's presence. Julius, by abandoning himself to pleasures and amusements no less unbecoming his age than his character, having contracted such habits of dissipation, that any serious occupation, especially if attended with difficulty, became an intolerable burden to him, had long resisted the solicitations of his nephew to hold a consistory, because he expected there a violent opposition to his schemes in favour of that young man. But when all the pretexts which he could invent for eluding this request were exhausted, and at the same time his indolent aversion to business continued to grow upon him, he feigned indisposition rather than yield to his nephew'* importunity; and that he might give the deceit a greater colour of probability, he not only confined himself to his apartment, but changed his usual diet and manner of life. By persisting too long in acting this ridiculous part, he contracted a real disease, of which he died in a few days, leaving his infamous minion, the cardinal de March 13. Monte, to bear his name, and to disgrace the dignity which he had conferred upon himm. As soon as Morone Thu nunri« heard of his death, he set out abruptly from Augsburg, f°r where he had resided only a few days, that he might be present at the election of a new pontiff'.
One cause of their suspicions and fears being thus re
Book moved, the Protestants soon became sensible that their XL
'^conjectures concerning Ferdinand's intentions, however
Fer';;-55 specious, were ill-founded, and that he had no thoughts nanJ',rci- of violating the articles favourable to them in the treaty wishing to of Passau. Charles, from the time that Maurice had dePr ' V''' fealea" a" n's scuemes *n tne empire, and overturned the rati, great system of religious and civil despotism which he bad almost established there, gave little attention to the internal government of Germany, and permitted his brother to pursue whatever measures he judged most salutary and expedient. Ferdinand, less ambitious and enterprising than the emperor, instead of resuming a plan which he, with power and resources so far superior, had failed of accomplishing, endeavoured to attach the princes of the empire to his family by an administration uniformly moderate and equitable. To this he gave, at present, particular attention, because his situation at this juncture rendered ft necessary to court their favour and support with Viiore than usual assiduity. CharJti Charles had again resumed his favourite project of acsunvTi- s 9uw'm2 tne imperial crown for his son Philip, the proseplan of ai- cution of which, the reception it had met with when first Succession proPoseil Haa" obliged him to suspend, but had not into the tn> duced him to relinquish. This led him warmly to renew his request to his brother, that he would accept of some compensation for his prior right of succession, and sacrifice that to the grandeur of the house of Austria. Ferdinand, who was as little disposed as formerly to give such an extraordinary proof of self-denial, being sensible that, in order to defeat this scheme, not only the most inflexible firmness on his part, but a vigorous declaration from the princes of the empire in behalf of his title, were requisite, was willing to purchase their favour by gratifying them in every point that they deemed interesting or essential.
Th- Turk* At the same time, he stood in need of immediate and u>" "ddy ex1raord'nai7 am from tne Germanic body, as the Turks, Hungary, after having wrested from him great part of his Hungarian territories, were ready to attack the provinces still BC^K
subject to his authority with a formidable army, against —
which he could bring no equal force into the field. For >S s' this aid from Germany he could not hope, if the internal peace of the empire were not established on a foundation solid in itself, and which should appear, even to the Protestants, so secure and so permanent, as might not only allow them to engage in a distant war with safety, but might encourage them to act in it with vigour.
A step taken by the Protestants themselves, a shortHei» time after the opening of the diet, rendered him still^ 'nTMstc(„ more cautious of giving them any new cause of offence, •'k " hv
i ^?' ,, , , the Pro
As soon as the publication of Ferdmand s speech a\vaken-tesUntt ed the fears and suspicions which have been mentioned, the electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, together with the landgrave of Hesse, met at Naumburg, and confirming the ancient treaty of confraternity which had long united their families, they added to it a new article, by which the contracting parties bound themselves to adhere to the confession of Augsburg, and to maintain the doctrine which it contained in their respective dominions ".
Ferdinand, influenced by all these considerations, em- F.rdinami ployed his utmost address in conducting the deliberationsp^otc an of the diet, so as not to excite the jealousy of a party on »«ommowhose friendship he depended, and whose enmity, as they'had not only taken the alarm, but had begun to prepare for their defence, he had so much reason to dread. The members of the diet readily agreed to Ferdinand's proposal of taking the state of religion into consideration previous to any other business. But as soon as they en. tered upon it, both parties discovered all the zeal and animosity which a subject so interesting naturally engenders, and which the rancour of controversy, together with the violence of civil war, had inflamed to the highest pitch.
The Protestants contended, that the security which they elaimed in consequence of the treaty of Passau should
■ Chylra'i Saxonia, 489.
Book extend, without limitation, to all who had hitherto etn
XI. . — braced the doctrine of Luther, or who should hereafter
'55S- embrace it. The Catholics, having first of all asserted teiuions of the pope's right as the supreme and final judge with the catlu.- respect iQ a\\ articles of faith, declared, lhat though, on
lies »nd r ..... , t
Proicst- account of the present situation ol the empire, and tor am'' the sake of peace, they were willing to confirm the toleration granted by the treaty of Passau to such as had already adopted the new opinions, they must insist lhat this indulgence should not be extended either to those cities which had conformed to the interim, or to such ecclesiastics as should for the future apostatise from the church of Rome. It was no easy matter to reconcile such opposite pretensions, which were supported on each, side by the most elaborate arguments and the greatest acrimony of expression, that the abilities or zeal of theologians long exercised in disputation could suggest. Ferdinand, however, by his address and perseverance; by softening some things on each side; by putting a favourable meaning upon others; by representing incessantly the necessity as well as the advantages of concord; and by threatening, on some occasions, when all other considerations were disregarded, to dissolve the diet, brought them at length to a conclusion in which they all agreed. Sept. 45. Conformably to this a recess was framed, approved of, The prace and published with the usual formalities. The following establish- are the clnel articles winch it contained. That such *d- princes and cities as have declared their approbation of
the confession of Augsburg, shall be permitted to profess the doctrine and exercise the worship which it authorises, without interruption or molestation from the emperor, the king of the Romans, or any power or person whatsoever; that the Protestants, on their part, shall give 110 disquiet to the princes and states who adhere to the tenets ami rites of the church of Home; that, for the future, no attempt shall be made towards terminating religious differences, but by the gentle and pacific methods of persuasion and conference; that the Popish ecclesiastics shall